Nutrition and brain development in early life

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The Importance of Nutrition in Early Childhood Development
Neuron apoptosis coincides with the period of synaptogenesis, beginning during gestation and continuing through adolescence. Nutritional effects on auditory brainstem maturation in healthy term infants. Although the necessity of nutrients for brain development is evident, the extent to which nutrient deprivation during gestation and infancy results in long-term effects on brain function in free-living human populations is not yet clear. A novel enzymatic method for the measurement of lactose in lactose-free products. Indonesia ,

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Nutrition and Early Brain Development

Perinatal iron deficiency alters apical dendritic growth in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Fetal iron deficiency disrupts the maturation of synaptic function and efficacy in area CA1 of the developing rat hippocampus. Recent evidence from human and animal studies regarding iron status and infant development.

Chronic marginal iron intakes during early development in mice result in persistent changes in dopamine metabolism and myelin composition. Morphologic study on cerebral cortex development in therapeutically aborted fetuses in an endemic goiter region in Guizhou.

The impaired growth induced by zinc deficiency in rats is associated with decreased expression of the hepatic insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone receptor genes. Imprinting of hippocampal metabolism of choline by its availability during gestation: Maternal vitamin B 12 status and risk of neural tube defects in a population with high neural tube defect prevalence and no folic acid fortification.

Effects of vitamin B 6 deficiency on morphological changes in dendritic trees in Purkinje cells in developing cerebellum in rats. Effects of maternal restriction of vitamin B 6 on neocortex development in rats: Vitamin B 6 and cognitive development: Effects of perinatal vitamin B 6 deficiency on dopaminergic neurochemistry.

Effects of vitamin B 6 deficiency on the developing central nervous system of the rat. A quantitative dendritic analysis of Wernicke's area in humans. Gender, hemispheric, and environmental factors. Induction of brain structure by experience: Abnormal brain connectivity in children after early severe socioemotional deprivation: Extensive piano practicing has regionally specific effects on white matter development.

Sex and environmental influences on the size and ultrastructure of the rat corpus callosum. Differential rearing affects corpus callosum size and cognitive function of rhesus monkeys.

Modeling transformations of neurodevelopmental sequences across mammalian species. Nutritional supplementation, psychosocial stimulation, and mental development of stunted children: Nutritional supplementation, maternal education, and cognitive development of infants at risk of malnutrition.

Double burden of iron deficiency in infancy and low socioeconomic status: The effect of birthweight on childhood cognitive development in a middle-income country.

Early childhood development interventions and cognitive development of young children in rural Vietnam. Home intervention improves cognitive and social-emotional scores in iron-deficient anemic infants. Zinc supplementation and psychosocial stimulation: Prenatal choline availability modulates hippocampal neurogenesis and neurogenic responses to enriching experiences in adult female rats. Nutrition and environmental interactions in the behavioural development of the rat: Activity and behavioral development in stunted and nonstunted children and response to nutritional supplemenation.

Time course of axonal myelination in the human brainstem auditory pathway. Model-based analysis and quantification of age trends in auditory evoked potentials. Nutritional effects on auditory brainstem maturation in healthy term infants.

Issues in the timing of integrated early interventions: Sheep models of intrauterine growth restriction: Maternal iron status influences iron transfer to the fetus during the third trimester of pregnancy. Effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on infant development: Maternal multiple micronutrient supplements and child cognition: Iron-fortified vs low-iron infant formula: Neurodevelopmental disorders after prenatal famine: Prenatal exposure to wartime famine and development of antisocial personality disorder in early adulthood.

Children who recover from early stunting and children who are not stunted demonstrate similar levels of cognition. Strategies for reducing inequalities and improving developmental outcomes for young children in low-income and middle-income countries.

The assessment of cognitive performance in children: The development of 3- to 9-month-old infants in two cultural contexts: Bayley longitudinal results for Cameroonian and German infants. The crucial role of thiamine in the development of syntax and lexical retrieval: A review of studies of the effect of severe malnutrition on mental development.

Infant malnutrition is associated with persisting attention deficits in middle adulthood. Socioeconomic outcomes in adults malnourished in the first year of life: Effects of being born small for gestational age on long-term intellectual performance. Inequality in early childhood: Low birth weight, prematurity, and paternal social status: The effect of psychosocial stimulation on cognition and behaviour at 6 years in a cohort of term, low-birthweight Jamaican children.

Development and behaviour of low-birthweight term infants at 8 years in northeast Brazil: Low birthweight and subsequent emotional and behavioural outcomes in year-old children in Soweto, South Africa: Growth and development of term children born with low birth weight: Neurodevelopmental outcome in children with intrauterine growth retardation: Effects of early childhood supplementation on the educational achievement of women.

Effect of a nutrition intervention during early childhood on economic productivity in Guatemalan adults. The behavioral consequences of protein-energy deprivation and supplementation in early life: The Bacon Chow study: Developmental effects of short-term supplementary feeding in nutritionally at-risk Indonesian infants.

Three-month nutritional supplementation in Indonesian infants and toddlers benefits memory function 8 y later. Effects of an energy and micronutrient supplement on mental development and behavior under natural conditions in undernourished children in Indonesia.

Effects of an energy and micronutrient supplement on growth and activity, correcting for non-supplemental sources of energy input in undernourished children in Indonesia. Effects of early childhood supplementation with and without stimulation on later development in stunted Jamaican children. Effects of stunting in early childhood on growth, IQ and cognition at age 11—12 years and the benefits of nutritional supplementation and psychological stimulation.

Effects of early childhood psychosocial stimulation and nutritional supplementation on cognition and education in growth-stunted Jamaican children: Early childhood stunting is associated with poor psychological functioning in late adolescence and effects are reduced by psychosocial stimulation.

Oligosaccharides in human milk: A critical evaluation of the evidence on the association between type of infant feeding and cognitive development. Breast milk and cognitive development — the role of confounders: Effect of breast feeding on intelligence in children: Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries.

What are the causal effects of breastfeeding on IQ, obesity and blood pressure? Evidence from comparing high-income with middle-income cohorts. Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: Impact of fatty acid status on growth and neurobehavioural development in humans. Meta-analysis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of formula and infant cognition. Developmental profiles of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain of normal infants and patients with peroxisomal diseases: Randomized comparison of 3 types of micronutrient supplements for home fortification of complementary foods in Ghana: Effects of nutrient fortified complementary food supplements on development of infants and young children in poor rural area of Gansu Province.

Developmental outcomes among month-old Malawians after a year of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements or corn-soy flour. The effect of maternal omega-3 n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy on early childhood cognitive and visual development: Assessment of the risk of zinc deficiency in populations and options for its control.

Prenatal micronutrient supplementation and intellectual and motor function in early school-aged children in Nepal. Effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on the mental development of infants in rural western China: Effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy on the intelligence quotient and behavior of children at 4 y of age: Effects of iron supplementation of LBW infants on cognition and behavior at 3 years.

Preschool iron-folic acid and zinc supplementation in children exposed to iron-folic acid in utero confers no added cognitive benefit in early school-age. Preschool micronutrient supplementation effects on intellectual and motor function in school-aged Nepalese children.

Iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in the first two years of life: Neurological damage to the fetus resulting from severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy. A metaanalysis of research on iodine and its relationship to cognitive development. The effects of iodine on intelligence in children: Iodine deficiency in pregnancy, infancy and childhood and its consequences for brain development. Effects of iodine supplementation during pregnancy on child growth and development at school age.

Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: Iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under: Folate status of mothers during pregnancy and mental and psychomotor development of their children at five years of age.

Zinc supplementation during pregnancy and effects on mental development and behavior of infants: A community-based randomized controlled trial of iron and zinc supplementation in Indonesian infants: Iron and zinc supplementation promote motor development and exploratory behavior among Bangladesh infants.

Daily supplementation with iron plus folic acid, zinc, and their combination is not associated with younger age at first walking unassisted in malnourished preschool children from a deficient population in rural Nepal. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of zinc supplementation on the mental development of Bangladeshi infants.

Effect of zinc supplementation on development and growth of Chilean infants. Effect of zinc supplementation on observed activity in low socioeconomic Indian preschool children. Zinc supplementation affects the activity patterns of rural Guatemalan infants. Preventive zinc supplementation among infants, preschoolers, and older prepubertal children. Relation of maternal zinc nutriture to pregnancy outcome and infant development in an Egyptian village. Diet during lactation associated with infant behavior and caregiver-infant interaction in a semirural Egyptian village.

Effect of maternal multivitamin supplementation on the mental and psychomotor development of children who are born to HIVinfected mothers in Tanzania. Effect of a fortified maize-meal porridge on anemia, micronutrient status, and motor development of infants. The effect of nutritional supplementation on physical activity and exploratory behavior of Mexican infants aged 8—12 months. Risks of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism after correction of iodine deficiency by iodized salt. Systematic review of the efficacy and effectiveness of complementary feeding interventions in developing countries.

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More on this topic The devil is in the details. Role of nutrients in the development of neonatal immune response. Nutrients for Cognitive Development in School-aged Children. Micronutrients, iodine status and concentrations of thyroid hormones: Related articles in PubMed Planned, unplanned, and in-between: Diagnostic protocols for the management of pregnancy of unknown location.

A novel enzymatic method for the measurement of lactose in lactose-free products. Spontaneous ascending aortic rupture in a pregnant woman with neurofibromatosis type 1. Citing articles via Web of Science Latest Most Read Most Cited Novel public—private partnerships to address the double burden of malnutrition.

Factors perceived to influence healthy eating: Carotenoids, vitamin A, and their association with the metabolic syndrome: Food sources and biomolecular targets of tyramine. Neuron proliferation is the creation of new cells through cell division. Axons and dendrites are branching projections that grow out from cell bodies to make connections with other cells.

Synapses are connections between axons, dendrites, and cell bodies. Myelin is white, fatty matter that covers axons and accelerates the speed of nerve impulses traveling from one cell to another. Apoptosis is programmed cell death. Human autopsy studies and magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that infants with IUGR had fewer brain cells and cerebral cortical grey matter volume than normal-birth-weight infants. A human autopsy study showed that 3—4-month-old infants with moderate malnutrition low weight for age had decreased dendritic span and arborization complexity of branching projections compared to well-nourished infants.

Both prenatal and postnatal undernutrition in rodents results in fewer synapses as well as synaptic structural changes. Human autopsy studies have also shown that infants with severe acute malnutrition have fewer brain cells than well-nourished infants.

Neurogenesis requires the synthesis of large amounts of membrane phospholipid from fatty acids. Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid DHA in membranes at synaptic sites play a role in the maturation of synapses and in neurotransmission. Fatty acids are structural components of myelin. Iron is required for the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase that regulates central nervous system cell division.

Gestational and neonatal iron deficiency in rodents results in truncated dendritic branching in the hippocampus, which persists into adulthood despite iron repletion.

Gestational and early postnatal iron deficiency in rodents results in decreased synaptic maturity and efficacy in the hippocampus, which persists despite iron repletion. Iron plays a role in myelin synthesis. In adult rodents, iron deficiency decreases the number of dopamine D2 receptors and the density of dopamine transporter in the striatum and nucleus accumbens.

In both animal models and cell culture experiments, dopamine and norepinephrine metabolism are altered by iron deficiency. Some fetuses aborted in months 6 and 8 of gestation in an iodine-deficient area of China had lower brain weight than fetuses in an iodine-sufficient area, while some showed increased cell density. As genes and environment are the other two factors, eating a certain food cannot guarantee that your child will be smarter, although my mother did successfully teach trick?

Under-nutrition during pregnancy stunts foetal growth and can lead to poor brain development that result in irreversible chronic illnesses. Is it really that important for children to be consuming all of the above nutrients though?

The benefits of good nutrition to health are endless, but the following few conclusions made by researchers serve to prove my point. Firstly, breastfeeding by mothers following nutritious diets leads to fewer and less severe cases among their children of illnesses including diarrhoea, ear infection and bacterial meningitis. This is because better-nourished children have an enhanced natural ability to fight infection. However, too much iron also presents problems.

I t seems bizarre to think that what your child consumes at, say, 4 months will affect their learning ability years later. Research has proven this true. For instance, breastfeeding appears to lead to higher IQ, while iron deficiency correlates with reduced cognition and achievement at school age. Family food insufficiency is related to overweight among preschoolers.

Social Science and Medicine. Food insecurity is not associated with childhood obesity as assessed using multiple measures of obesity.

The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders. Early life programming of obesity and metabolic disease. Effects of nutrition on brain development in humans. Dietary n-3 fatty acids and brain development. Food security, poverty, and human development in the United States.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Examining food insecurity among children in the United States. National Center for Children in Poverty. Food Research and Action Center. Living at the edge: Accessed March 1, Household food security in the United States, Department of Agriculture Economic Research Report

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