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Perinatal iron deficiency alters apical dendritic growth in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Fetal iron deficiency disrupts the maturation of synaptic function and efficacy in area CA1 of the developing rat hippocampus. Recent evidence from human and animal studies regarding iron status and infant development.
Chronic marginal iron intakes during early development in mice result in persistent changes in dopamine metabolism and myelin composition. Morphologic study on cerebral cortex development in therapeutically aborted fetuses in an endemic goiter region in Guizhou.
The impaired growth induced by zinc deficiency in rats is associated with decreased expression of the hepatic insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone receptor genes. Imprinting of hippocampal metabolism of choline by its availability during gestation: Maternal vitamin B 12 status and risk of neural tube defects in a population with high neural tube defect prevalence and no folic acid fortification.
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Prenatal micronutrient supplementation and intellectual and motor function in early school-aged children in Nepal. Effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on the mental development of infants in rural western China: Effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy on the intelligence quotient and behavior of children at 4 y of age: Effects of iron supplementation of LBW infants on cognition and behavior at 3 years.
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Iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in the first two years of life: Neurological damage to the fetus resulting from severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy. A metaanalysis of research on iodine and its relationship to cognitive development. The effects of iodine on intelligence in children: Iodine deficiency in pregnancy, infancy and childhood and its consequences for brain development. Effects of iodine supplementation during pregnancy on child growth and development at school age.
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Effect of zinc supplementation on development and growth of Chilean infants. Effect of zinc supplementation on observed activity in low socioeconomic Indian preschool children. Zinc supplementation affects the activity patterns of rural Guatemalan infants. Preventive zinc supplementation among infants, preschoolers, and older prepubertal children. Relation of maternal zinc nutriture to pregnancy outcome and infant development in an Egyptian village. Diet during lactation associated with infant behavior and caregiver-infant interaction in a semirural Egyptian village.
Effect of maternal multivitamin supplementation on the mental and psychomotor development of children who are born to HIVinfected mothers in Tanzania. Effect of a fortified maize-meal porridge on anemia, micronutrient status, and motor development of infants. The effect of nutritional supplementation on physical activity and exploratory behavior of Mexican infants aged 8—12 months. Risks of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism after correction of iodine deficiency by iodized salt. Systematic review of the efficacy and effectiveness of complementary feeding interventions in developing countries.
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More on this topic The devil is in the details. Role of nutrients in the development of neonatal immune response. Nutrients for Cognitive Development in School-aged Children. Micronutrients, iodine status and concentrations of thyroid hormones: Related articles in PubMed Planned, unplanned, and in-between: Diagnostic protocols for the management of pregnancy of unknown location.
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Factors perceived to influence healthy eating: Carotenoids, vitamin A, and their association with the metabolic syndrome: Food sources and biomolecular targets of tyramine. Neuron proliferation is the creation of new cells through cell division. Axons and dendrites are branching projections that grow out from cell bodies to make connections with other cells.
Synapses are connections between axons, dendrites, and cell bodies. Myelin is white, fatty matter that covers axons and accelerates the speed of nerve impulses traveling from one cell to another. Apoptosis is programmed cell death. Human autopsy studies and magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that infants with IUGR had fewer brain cells and cerebral cortical grey matter volume than normal-birth-weight infants. A human autopsy study showed that 3—4-month-old infants with moderate malnutrition low weight for age had decreased dendritic span and arborization complexity of branching projections compared to well-nourished infants.
Both prenatal and postnatal undernutrition in rodents results in fewer synapses as well as synaptic structural changes. Human autopsy studies have also shown that infants with severe acute malnutrition have fewer brain cells than well-nourished infants.
Neurogenesis requires the synthesis of large amounts of membrane phospholipid from fatty acids. Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid DHA in membranes at synaptic sites play a role in the maturation of synapses and in neurotransmission. Fatty acids are structural components of myelin. Iron is required for the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase that regulates central nervous system cell division.
Gestational and neonatal iron deficiency in rodents results in truncated dendritic branching in the hippocampus, which persists into adulthood despite iron repletion.
Gestational and early postnatal iron deficiency in rodents results in decreased synaptic maturity and efficacy in the hippocampus, which persists despite iron repletion. Iron plays a role in myelin synthesis. In adult rodents, iron deficiency decreases the number of dopamine D2 receptors and the density of dopamine transporter in the striatum and nucleus accumbens.
In both animal models and cell culture experiments, dopamine and norepinephrine metabolism are altered by iron deficiency. Some fetuses aborted in months 6 and 8 of gestation in an iodine-deficient area of China had lower brain weight than fetuses in an iodine-sufficient area, while some showed increased cell density. As genes and environment are the other two factors, eating a certain food cannot guarantee that your child will be smarter, although my mother did successfully teach trick?
Under-nutrition during pregnancy stunts foetal growth and can lead to poor brain development that result in irreversible chronic illnesses. Is it really that important for children to be consuming all of the above nutrients though?
The benefits of good nutrition to health are endless, but the following few conclusions made by researchers serve to prove my point. Firstly, breastfeeding by mothers following nutritious diets leads to fewer and less severe cases among their children of illnesses including diarrhoea, ear infection and bacterial meningitis. This is because better-nourished children have an enhanced natural ability to fight infection. However, too much iron also presents problems.
I t seems bizarre to think that what your child consumes at, say, 4 months will affect their learning ability years later. Research has proven this true. For instance, breastfeeding appears to lead to higher IQ, while iron deficiency correlates with reduced cognition and achievement at school age. Family food insufficiency is related to overweight among preschoolers.
Social Science and Medicine. Food insecurity is not associated with childhood obesity as assessed using multiple measures of obesity.
The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders. Early life programming of obesity and metabolic disease. Effects of nutrition on brain development in humans. Dietary n-3 fatty acids and brain development. Food security, poverty, and human development in the United States.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Examining food insecurity among children in the United States. National Center for Children in Poverty. Food Research and Action Center. Living at the edge: Accessed March 1, Household food security in the United States, Department of Agriculture Economic Research Report