Hillary Destroys Syria, Blames Russia

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Flint water crisis
In addition to runoff from land, fish farming wastes and industrial ammonia discharges, atmospheric fixed nitrogen can enter the open ocean. The nutrition status of patients with cancer can vary at presentation and through the continuum of cancer care. Indications for nutrition support include the following: Retrieved from " https: An even larger bumper harvest is predicted for US Patent , Gustano A.

The Real Drug Lords: A brief history of CIA involvement in the Drug Trade


Why it is applied Drive you out of your mind, drive you into attacking other people. How it is applied They may apply this when you drink your first glass of beer, wine, etc.

Feeling It appears your eardrum and surrounding area is very sensitive. This is very painful. How it is applied Some kind of miocrowave burst, see also Phasr and other similar military weapons used to blind the enemy.

Feeling Not really painfull but you cannot do much as you are used to two eyes. Should you worry Yes, this is very damaging for your eyes. Feeling Like they drive a needle into your eye. How it is applied This is just a laser hair removal procedure, like performed in many beauty parlors.

How it is applied You can turn your head in the other direction or hold your hand before your nose to make sure the attack is caused by electronic weapons. Why it is applied To make your body react to something. How it is applied I am not sure if this is done only by electronic weapon or by a combination of some drug and electronic weapon. Why it is applied Prevent you from doing anything, just plain torture.

How it is applied They can do this in just one or two hours by aiming a high power beam at your throat. Why it is applied Prevent you from speaking loud, prevent you to sing. How it is applied This beam can be applied everywhere, form the house next to yours, from cars. When they beam you outside the intensity often is higher as they want to make sure are hit properly. Feeling You feel like being microwaved. Very painfull, horrible torture.

Feeling You feel like being cooked alive, horrible torture. How it is applied It takes approx. They also may apply low intensity, so you get an irresistable urge to burp but cannot. Why it is applied To make you suffer. This applied sometimes once every five minutes, but sometimes also several times a minute to let your body react to events like cars passing your window, etc.

How it is applied As they may apply the from behaind beam for a long period your flesh around the heart area may get cooked and the whole area may feel painfiul and stiff. Feeling This really gives you the feeling of having a heart problem, and in fact you have!

The difference is that this one is applied by murderers. After effects It may take several days before you recover if they stop the beam. How it is applied They can do this through wall anytime. After effects It may take several days before your body recovers and it all feels normal again. How it is applied Not only frightening but also very painful. How it is applied This almost instant skin cooking.

Why it is applied Present pain. To move you out of the way, to make you leave the swimming pool, etc. How it is applied They often do this during high intensity sport activities. The idea is to make you belive you have real spleen pain and will stop your exercise.

How it is applied They often do this at night. Should you worry Yes, long term irradition may cause stomach cancer, tumors. Feeling This pain makes you crawl on the floor. After effects It takes at least one hour before the horrible cramps get a litle less painful.

How to detect With normal cramps you will have other parts of your body react as well, like heavy sweating. In this case there is just intense pain. Why it is applied Keep you out of important events, e. A lawsuit where you havve to defend yourself. How it is applied After a few days your knee hurts a lot when walking. They may apply this also when biking to make you think something is wrong with your knee.

How it is applied What happens when you increase load on cooked muscles? Why it is applied Prevent you from running, other sports. Why it is applied Prevent you from runningm, other sports. After effects May take several days to disappear when applied with high intensities.

Feeling Extremely painful, horrible torture. How it is applied They may do this while riding your bike, horrible torture. How it is applied They may also do this by devices built into your car.

How it is applied They may do this when you are with a friend. How it is applied Some people in your environment might tell you they have wild dreams that night trying to get you talking about your experience. Additional Links Secret service: To all Politicians of the world. The only way to save the world is to stop your national secret services.

Breaking laws and violating human rights in horrible ways has become a way of life. They are responsible for most problems in your neighborhood, in your city, in your country, in the world. Make them responsible for what they are doing. Let them account for in detail, force them to open up their organizations for thorough investigations. Stop their funding if they do not co-operate. Replace directors and staff immediately by normal people for starters.

Please help to spread the message or donate: The Clinton Chronicles October 10 From: JeremiahFilms The Clinton Chronicles: Back in '94 these criminal psychopaths were just getting warmed up, as history now attests Many people involved in the research and investigations reported by this film have been murdered or died under questionable circumstances.

From millions in drug smuggling in Mena, Arkansas. From Gennifer Flowers to Paula Jones. Part One Part Two. The release comes the same day the State Department published emails previously deleted from Clinton's private server. WikiLeaks to release all US election docs by November 8. Podesta served during Bill Clinton administration. Wikileaks warned on its 10th anniversary it would be releasing more emails.

Those same critics, however, failed to put their money where their mouth is, especially when it comes to helping the Duterte government rehabilitate close to a million drug surrendered.

Duterte wants to liberate Philippines from U. Other sordid crimes relating to meth addiction were also brought to light including cannibalism, and in the realm of politics, it has sent a former justice secretary to the present senate, on top of congressmen and mayors who are already funded with drug money for years. According to Alfred W. The Corsicans gained political influence and control over the docks - ideal conditions for cementing a long-term partnership with mafia drug distributors, which turned Marseille into the postwar heroin capital of the Western world.

A laboratory built at CIA headquarters in northern Laos was used to refine heroin. Ironically drug trafficking through Panama increased after the US invasion. The San Jose Mercury News series documents just one thread of the interwoven operations linking the CIA, the contras and the cocaine cartels.

Obsessed with overthrowing the leftist Sandinista government in Nicaragua, Reagan administration officials tolerated drug trafficking as long as the traffickers gave support to the contras. In , the Senate Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics, and International Operations the Kerry committee concluded a three-year investigation by stating:. Many had long been involved with the CIA and drug trafficking They used contra planes and a Costa Rican-based shrimp company, which laundered money for the CIA, to move cocaine to the U.

Costa Rica was not the only route. Guatemala, whose military intelligence service - closely associated with the CIA - harbored many drug traffickers, according to the DEA, was another way station along the cocaine highway. The contras provided both protection and infrastructure planes, pilots, airstrips, warehouses, front companies and banks to these ClA-linked drug networks.

At least four transport companies under investigation for drug trafficking received US govemment contracts to carry non-lethal supplies to the contras. ClA-supported Moujahedeen rebels engaged heavily in drug trafficking while fighting against the Soviet-supported govemment and its plans to reform the very backward Afghan society. CIA supplied trucks and mules, which had carried arms into Afghanistan, were used to transport opium to laboratories along the Afghan Pakistan border.

The output provided up to one half of the heroin used annually in the United States and three-quarters of that used in Western Europe. US officials admitted in that they had failed to investigate or take action against the drug operabon because of a desire not to offend their Pakistani and Afghan allies.

SIN was purportedly created to fight the cocaine trade, though SIN officers themselves engaged in the trafficking, a trade aided and abetted by some of the Haitian military and political leaders.

Restore the Drug Trade. There is reason to believe that this figure of 3, tons is grossly underestimated. While bad weather and damaged crops may have played a role as suggested by the UNODC, based on historical trends, the potential production for an area of cultivation of , hectares, should be well in excess of tons. With 80, hectares in cultivation in , production was already of the order of tons.

There is no evidence that a large percentage of opium production is no longer processed into heroin as claimed by the UN. This revised UNODC methodology has served, — through the outright manipulation of statistical concepts — to artificially reduce the size of of the global trade in heroin.

What the UNODC, — whose mandate is to support the prevention of organized criminal activity — has done is to obfuscate the size and criminal nature of the Afghan drug trade, intimating — without evidence — that a large part of the opium is no longer channeled towards the illegal heroin marke. The price per gram of pure heroin is substantially higher. The profits are largely reaped at the level of the international wholesale and retail markets of heroin as well as in the process of money laundering in Western banking institutions.

The revenues derived from the global trade in heroin constitute a multibillion dollar bonanza for financial institutions and organized crime. The following article first published in May provides a background on the history of the Afghan opium trade which continues to this date to be protected by US-NATO occupation forces on behalf of powerful financial interests.

The Spoils of War: In the words of the US State Department:. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime UNODC , opium production in Afghanistan in is estimated at 3, tons, with an estimated area under cultivation of the order of 80, hectares.

An even larger bumper harvest is predicted for The State Department suggests that up to hectares were under cultivation in Congressional Hearing, op cit:. Opium production declined by more than 90 per cent in In fact the surge in opium cultivation production coincided with the onslaught of the US-led military operation and the downfall of the Taliban regime. From October through December , farmers started to replant poppy on an extensive basis. Any decrease in illicit cultivation is welcomed, especially in cases like this when no displacement, locally or in other countries, took place to weaken the achievement.

In the wake of the US invasion, shift in rhetoric. UNODC is now acting as if the opium ban had never happened:. In the wake of the US bombing of Afghanistan, the British government of Tony Blair was entrusted by the G-8 Group of leading industrial nations to carry out a drug eradication program, which would, in theory, allow Afghan farmers to switch out of poppy cultivation into alternative crops.

The UK sponsored crop eradication program is an obvious smokescreen. Since October , opium poppy cultivation has skyrocketed. The presence of occupation forces in Afghanistan did not result in the eradication of poppy cultivation. Heroin is a multibillion dollar business supported by powerful interests, which requires a steady and secure commodity flow. Immediately following the October invasion, opium markets were restored. In , under the Taliban opiate production stood at tons, increasing to tons in under the US sponsored puppet regime of President Hamid Karzai.

According to the Saudi newspaper Al-Watan:. Prior to the Soviet-Afghan war , opium production in Afghanistan and Pakistan was directed to small regional markets.

There was no local production of heroin. Alfred McCoy, Drug Fallout: The Progressive, 1 August CIA assets again controlled this heroin trade.

As the Mujahideen guerrillas seized territory inside Afghanistan, they ordered peasants to plant opium as a revolutionary tax. Across the border in Pakistan, Afghan leaders and local syndicates under the protection of Pakistan Intelligence operated hundreds of heroin laboratories. During this decade of wide-open drug-dealing, the U.

Drug Enforcement Agency in Islamabad failed to instigate major seizures or arrests. Needless to say, the historical roots of the opium trade have been grossly distorted.

In the wake of the Soviet-Afghan war, the growth of the narcotics economy has continued unabated. The Taliban, which were supported by the US, were initially instrumental in the further growth of opiate production until the opium ban. Second to Oil and the Arms Trade. The revenues generated from the CIA sponsored Afghan drug trade are sizeable.

At the time these UN figures were first brought out , the estimated global trade in drugs was of the same order of magnitude as the global trade in oil. The IMF estimated global money laundering to be between billion and 1. Asian Banker, 15 August A large share of global money laundering as estimated by the IMF is linked to the trade in narcotics. Based on recent figures , drug trafficking constitutes:.

Moreover, the above figures including those on money laundering, confirm that the bulk of the revenues associated with the global trade in narcotics are not appropriated by terrorist groups and warlords, as suggested by the UNODC report.

There are powerful business and financial interests behind narcotics. From this standpoint, geopolitical and military control over the drug routes is as strategic as oil and oil pipelines. However, what distinguishes narcotics from legal commodity trade is that narcotics constitutes a major source of wealth formation not only for organised crime but also for the US intelligence apparatus, which increasingly constitutes a powerful actor in the spheres of finance and banking.

In turn, the CIA, which protects the drug trade, has developed complex business and undercover links to major criminal syndicates involved in the drug trade.

In other words, intelligence agencies and powerful business syndicates allied with organized crime, are competing for the strategic control over the heroin routes. The multi-billion dollar revenues of narcotics are deposited in the Western banking system. Most of the large international banks together with their affiliates in the offshore banking havens launder large amounts of narco-dollars. In turn, the relationship among criminals, politicians and members of the intelligence establishment has tainted the structures of the state and the role of its institutions.

Where does the money go? Who benefits from the Afghan opium trade? This trade is characterized by a complex web of intermediaries. There are various stages of the drug trade, several interlocked markets, from the impoverished poppy farmer in Afghanistan to the wholesale and retail heroin markets in Western countries.

The UNDOC estimate, based on local farmgate and wholesale prices constitutes, however, a very small percentage of the total turnover of the multibillion dollar Afghan drug trade. An examination of the wholesale and retail prices for heroin in the Western countries suggests, however, that the total revenues generated, including those at the retail level, are substantially higher.

Wholesale Prices of Heroin in Western Countries. It is estimated that one kilo of opium produces approximately grams of pure heroin. The DEA figures quoted above, while reflecting the situation in the s, are broadly consistent with recent British figures.

Whereas as there is competition between different sources of heroin supply, it should be emphasized that Afghan heroin represents a rather small percentage of the US heroin market, which is largely supplied out of Colombia. The NYPD figures are roughly similar with perhaps lower estimates for purity. It should be noted that when heroin is purchased in very small quantities, the retail price tends to be much higher. Office of National Drug Control Policy. In other words, for very small purchases marketed by street pushers, the retail margin tends to be significantly higher.

AAP News, 3 March According to Drugscope www. The Hierarchy of Prices. We are dealing with a hierarchy of prices, from the farmgate price in the producing country, upwards, to the final retail street price.

The latter is often times the price paid to the farmer. In other words, the opiate product transits through several markets from the producing country to the transshipment country ies , to the consuming countries. In Afghanistan, the reported production of 3, tons of opium in would allow for the production of approximately , kg of pure heroin. The latter constitutes a conservative estimate based on the various figures for wholesale prices in the previous section.

The total proceeds of the Afghan narcotics trade in terms of total value added is estimated using the final heroin retail price.

In other words, the retail value of the trade is ultimately the criterion for measuring the importance of the drug trade in terms of revenue generation and wealth formation.

A meaningful estimate of the retail value, however, is almost impossible to ascertain due to the fact that retail prices vary considerably within urban areas, from one city to another and between consuming countries, not to mention variations in purity and quality see above.

The evidence on retail margins, namely the difference between wholesale and retail values in the consuming countries, nonetheless, suggests that a large share of the total money proceeds of the drug trade are generated at the retail level.

In other words, a significant portion of the proceeds of the drug trade accrues to criminal and business syndicates in Western countries involved in the local wholesale and retail narcotics markets.

The latter should be considered as a simulation rather than an estimate. Under this assumption simulation , a billion dollars gross revenue to the farmers in Afghanistan would generate global narcotics earnings, — accruing at various stages and in various markets — of the order of These global proceeds accrue to business syndicates, intelligence agencies, organized crime, financial institutions, wholesalers, retailers, etc.

In turn, the proceeds of this lucrative trade are deposited in Western banks, which constitute an essential mechanism in the laundering of dirty money. A very small percentage accrues to farmers and traders in the producing country. Bear in mind that the net income accruing to Afghan farmers is but a fraction of the estimated 1 billion dollar amount. The latter does not include payments of farm inputs, interest on loans to money lenders, political protection, etc.

There are no reliable estimates on the distribution of the global narcotics trade between the main categories: The Laundering of Drug Money. The proceeds of the drug trade are deposited in the banking system. Drug money is laundered in the numerous offshore banking havens in Switzerland, Luxembourg, the British Channel Islands, the Cayman Islands and some 50 other locations around the globe.

Dirty money is deposited in these offshore havens, which are controlled by the major Western commercial banks. The latter have a vested interest in maintaining and sustaining the drug trade.

Once the money has been laundered, it can be recycled into bona fide investments not only in real estate, hotels, etc, but also in other areas such as the services economy and manufacturing. Dirty and covert money is also funneled into various financial instruments including the trade in derivatives, primary commodities, stocks, and government bonds.

Criminalization of US Foreign Policy. US foreign policy supports the workings of a thriving criminal economy in which the demarcation between organized capital and organized crime has become increasingly blurred.

These interests are sustained by US foreign policy. Decision-making in the US State Department, the CIA and the Pentagon is instrumental in supporting this highly profitable multibillion dollar trade, third in commodity value after oil and the arms trade.

The heroin trade was part of the war agenda. What this war has achieved is to restore a compliant narco-State, headed by a US appointed puppet. Opium Poppy Cultivation in Afghanistan. Afghanistan Opium Survey See also the Survey: Afghanistan's Multibillion Dollar Heroin Trade.

It is dangerous and most of the time a fatal disease. If not under control in time, it can destroy society. No government is willing to accept responsibility for causing inflation. They always find an excuse; such as greedy businessmen, selfish trade unions, spendthrift consumers, Arab sheiks that have raised the price of oil, bad weather, or anything else that seems plausible.

Although all these can temporarily produce higher prices for individual items; they cannot produce continuing inflation for one very simple reason; None of the above alleged culprits possesses a printing press, to turn out pieces of paper called money; None can legally authorise a bookkeeper to make entries on ledgers that are the equivalent of those pieces of paper.

Over time, the result will be an immensely lower standard of living, resulting from the declining purchasing power and increasing commodity prices. Real wages will be much lower, as employers will not readily increase wages to keep up with inflation. Under a paper system without backing, the entire monetary system is controlled by the political class, which has the power to allocate capital or to deny it.

Inflation is a printing press phenomenon. The two important basic questions are: Why do governments increase the quantity of money? Why do they produce inflation when they understand the potential harm? Prices may fall gradually, as more became available, while people keep their wealth in the form of money.

Inflation occurs when the quantity of money rises more rapidly than output and the more rapid the rise in the quantity of money, the greater the rate of inflation. Output is limited by the physical and human resources available, and by the improvement in knowledge and capacity to use them.

At best the output can grow only fairly slowly. The same is the case, although always temporarily and for a brief period of time, for money backed by a commodity.

While, paper money has no limitation as does commodity-backed money. In short; Inflation is primarily a monetary phenomenon , produced by a more rapid increase in the quantity of money than in output. Excessive monetary growth produces inflation, caused by governments. Eventually these schemes will result in a massive inflation, never witnessed before.

Inflation is Legalised Theft: Inflation is nothing more than legalised theft by your government; inflation is only two percent, is what the Statistics suggest. All published inflation data are a blatant lie, as these numbers are made up to suit the government.

Showing lower inflation in statistics looks better. The theft committed by governments is concealed. When central banks print reserves far in excess of domestic savings, the result is inevitably inflation. The more they print, the more capital is available forinstitutions — central banks — to invest.

This creates massive asset inflation, in the price of assets, as central bankers buy — bonds, stocks, and real estate — to push economies upwards all around the world.

If additional government spending was financed either by taxes or by borrowing from the public, that would not lead to more rapid monetary growth. In this case the government would have more to spend, while the public would have less. But the fact of the matter is that the holders of the money pay for the extra spending, as the extra money raises prices when it is injected into the economy.

Moreover, inflation indirectly yields extra revenue by automatically raising effective tax revenues, as income from the people goes up to compensate for inflation, and people are consequently pushed into higher tax rate brackets. Additionally, there is the benefit of paying off debt with less valuable currency — less purchasing power — as less valuable units are paying for original units that were more valuable.

Reduction of Monetary Growth: The cure for inflation is the reduction in the rate of monetary growth, as this is the cause of inflation. Eventually it is a curable disease. Although the bad effects — a temporarily lower economic growth, and higher unemployment would be felt first, the good effects — a lower to zero inflation — would come later. This would result in a healthier economy, with the potential for rapid noninflationary growth. But as usual there is the lack of a true desire to cure the addiction of free money, resulting in this disease.

In a sense people enjoy inflation. Although they would like to see the prices of goods they buy go down, or at least stop going up, they are more than happy to see the prices of the things they own or sell go up. One reason inflation is so destructive is because while some people benefit greatly, other people suffer. Society is divided into winners and losers. The winners regard the good things that happen to them as the natural result of their own foresight, prudence, and initiative.

They regard the bad things; the rise of prices of goods purchased, as caused by forces outside their control. Almost everyone will say they are opposed to inflation. What they generally mean is that they are opposed to the bad things that have happened to them due to certain effects of inflation. The paper value of homes is rising.

With a mortgage, the interest rate generally is below the rate of inflation. As a result of this, inflation in effect is paying off the mortgage interest payments as well the principal. This effect is an advantage to the home owner, as his equity in the house goes up rapidly.

The flip side of the coin is that an interest rate below inflation results in a loss for savers. As inflation accelerates, rather sooner than later, it is causing so much damage to the fabric of society, by creating so much injustice, and suffering. Everywhere one looks it is repeatedly published that unemployment and slow growth are cures for inflation; that all alternativemeasures taken will result in more inflation or higher unemployment, which is nonsense. The truth is that slow growth and high unemployment are not cures for inflation.

They are the side-effects of a successful cure of a diseased economy. The general signal of increasing demand will be confused with the specific signals reflecting changes in relative demands.

That is why the initial side effect of faster monetary growth is the appearance of prosperity and greater employment. Wages and prices are higher not because of higher demand, but primarily to allow for the rises in the prices of goods they buy. Subsequently people are off on a price-wage spiral that itself effectively is inflation, and by no means the cause of it. If monetary growth does not speed up faster, the initial stimulus to employment and output will be replaced by the opposite; both will go down in response to the higher prices and wages.

By the way; governments can actually not create jobs, they can only steal from people and give it to others. This is the verdict of experience. Nevertheless, central bankers create excessive quantities of money, as they tell us the world needs more inflation to fight deflationary forces, which basically is nonsense as the deflationary forces are the result of the increase of monetary supply.

The Best Solution to Create Inflation: Moreover, if they want to create inflation, there is no need for excessive money printing. They can create inflation instantly byraising the price of gold, which is the easiest way to create inflation.

A higher dollar price for gold is practically the definition of inflation. The band and the use of physical gold would make the target price stick. A higher price for gold is the same as a lower value for the dollar. Nothing happens without consequences.

Inflation, in contrast to what economic leaders lead us to believe, is not equivalent to Santa Claus. All it does is shift the benefits of the economy around. In the immortal words of President Obama: Inflation penalises wage earners, savers, and retirees to the benefit of asset owners. It benefits debtors at the expense of creditors. One group is merely taxed for the benefit of the other. This is sold as a benefit to the country by governments. However, wealth cannot be created by a printing press.

This will cause price inflation, asset inflation, credit collapse — or a mixture of all three. Nevertheless, our leaders pretend otherwise. If credit is expanded in excess of savings, it historically always ends in a collapse. So there should be no surprise. When creditors begin to ask the critical question: Can these debts really be financed?

Will we get our savings back? If credit has been expanded radically beyond savings, as is the case today in the developed world, the answer is always NO.

It is true that dramatic increases in the money supply eventually lead to inflation. Inflation and deflation are not purely products of how much money is in the system. They are products of how fast this moneyis moving through the system. When banks are lending, businesses are borrowing, and consumers are spending, money changes hands quickly. Under these conditions, the monetary velocity is high.

If the economy grinds to a near halt, as is the case today, eventually money stops changing hands completely. Inflation is not purely from an increase in the money supply. Sufficient monetary velocity is required to spur a general and persistent increase in the price of goods and services. The end game may indeed be accelerating monetary velocity. The cumulative effect on the rise in prices and a spectacular loss of faith in the system will result in a decline in the desire for owning dollars will plummet, and that means hyperinflation.

How Much Money is in Circulation? Ever wondered how much money exists? Tbyil Ever wonder why modern medicine is not helping the populations of the western world to become healthier?

Maybe the foundation for health is wrong. Pasteur's germ theory of disease has helped forward the one germ for one disease concept that has raised Big Pharma to the wealthy business of developing drugs for one germ to purportedly cure one disease while causing autoimmune and chronic diseases to flourish from destroyed immune systems.

It's never more, never less - 36, deaths each flu season. Isn't there something fishy about that? Then get out the antibiotics for every case of the sniffles. Don't forget the pharmaceutical antiviral Tamiflu, expensive, not so effective, and dangerous. The germ theory has turned out to be great for the pharmaceutical business model. Patients at risk and billions of dollars being wasted because of tests, scans and procedures that don't work. Now we have those nasty mosquitoes carrying the Zika virus, which has no real history of being problematic.

So spray everything and everyone with toxic chemicals that do cause disease. And let's not forget those new vaccines. Over a billion dollars of government money has been recently set aside for Zika virus research and vaccines.

Why the Germ Theory is Flawed. The following quote is used by Dr. Keller, Physics of Fluids A: Makoto Imai, Naoki Urushihata, Hideki Tanemura, Yukinobu Tajima, Hideaki Goto, Koichiro Mizoguchi and Junichi Murakami of JAPAN, for determining the ideal density of airborne wasabi pungent horseradish to awaken sleeping people in case of a fire or other emergency, and for applying this knowledge to invent the wasabi alarm.

Product info [from Seems, Inc. Snyder , Robert H. Pietrzak, David Darby, Robert A. Maruff, Neurology and Urodynamics, vol. To be a high achiever, always work on something important, using it as a way to avoid doing something that's even more important.

Later republished elsewhere under the title "Structured Procrastination. Colleague Deborah Wilkes accepted the prize on behalf of Professor Perry.

Rentz, Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, vol. John Senders of the University of Toronto, CANADA, for conducting a series of safety experiments in which a person drives an automobile on a major highway while a visor repeatedly flaps down over his face, blinding him. Simon Rietveld of the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and Ilja van Beest of Tilburg University, The Netherlands, for discovering that symptoms of asthma can be treated with a roller-coaster ride.

Lianne Parkin , Sheila Williams , and Patricia Priest of the University of Otago, New Zealand, for demonstrating that, on icy footpaths in wintertime, people slip and fall less often if they wear socks on the outside of their shoes. Mathews, and Larry A. Taylor, Applied Microbiology, vol. Barbeito was unable to travel, due to health reasons.

A representative read his acceptance speech for him. The executives and directors of Goldman Sachs , AIG , Lehman Brothers , Bear Stearns , Merrill Lynch , and Magnetar for creating and promoting new ways to invest money — ways that maximize financial gain and minimize financial risk for the world economy, or for a portion thereof.

Alessandro Pluchino , Andrea Rapisarda , and Cesare Garofalo of the University of Catania, Italy, for demonstrating mathematically that organizations would become more efficient if they promoted people at random.

Catherine Douglas was unable to travel because she recently gave birth; she sent a photo of herself, her new daughter dressed in a cow suit, and a cow. Stephan Bolliger, Steffen Ross , Lars Oesterhelweg , Michael Thali and Beat Kneubuehl of the University of Bern, Switzerland, for determining — by experiment — whether it is better to be smashed over the head with a full bottle of beer or with an empty bottle.

Thali and Beat P. Kneubuehl, Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, vol. The directors, executives, and auditors of four Icelandic banks — Kaupthing Bank, Landsbanki, Glitnir Bank, and Central Bank of Iceland — for demonstrating that tiny banks can be rapidly transformed into huge banks, and vice versa — and for demonstrating that similar things can be done to an entire national economy. Report of the Special Investigation Commission , issued April 12, Castaño of Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, for creating diamonds from liquid — specifically from tequila.

Also published as Reviews on Advanced Materials Science , vol. Unger, of Thousand Oaks, California, USA, for investigating a possible cause of arthritis of the fingers, by diligently cracking the knuckles of his left hand — but never cracking the knuckles of his right hand — every day for more than sixty 60 years. Unger, Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol.

Shapiro of the University of Texas, USA, for analytically determining why pregnant women don't tip over. Ireland's police service An Garda Siochana , for writing and presenting more than fifty traffic tickets to the most frequent driving offender in the country — Prawo Jazdy — whose name in Polish means "Driving License".

Bodnar , Raphael C. Lee, and Sandra Marijan of Chicago, Illinois, USA, for inventing a brassiere that, in an emergency, can be quickly converted into a pair of protective face masks , one for the brassiere wearer and one to be given to some needy bystander. Massimiliano Zampini of the University of Trento, Italy and Charles Spence of Oxford University, UK, for electronically modifying the sound of a potato chip to make the person chewing the chip believe it to be crisper and fresher than it really is.

Urs Thurnherr , member of the committee. An Experimental Approach ," Astolfo G. Franc, Veterinary Parasitology, vol. Marie-Christine Cadiergues and Christel Joubert, unable to attend the ceremony, were presented with the prize at a special ceremony, later in the month, at the Genoa Science Festival.

Economic Evidence for Human Estrus? Jordan, Evolution and Human Behavior, vol. Raymer and Douglas E. Smith, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. Chiang all of Taiwan for discovering that it is not. Hill, and Deborah J. Anderson, New England Journal of Medicine, , vol. Chiang, Human Toxicology, vol. David Sims of Cass Business School. London, UK, for his lovingly written study "You Bastard: Mahadevan, Physical Review Letters, fol.

Passini, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. Mayu Yamamoto of the International Medical Center of Japan, for developing a way to extract vanillin -- vanilla fragrance and flavoring -- from cow dung. Toscanini's Ice Cream , the finest ice cream shop in Cambridge, Massachusetts, created a new ice cream flavor in honor of Mayu Yamamoto, and introduced it at the Ig Nobel ceremony.

The flavor is called "Yum-a-Moto Vanilla Twist. Juan Manuel Toro , Josep B. Animal Behavior Processes, vol. The winners could not travel to the ceremony, so they instead delivered their acceptance speech via recorded video. Glenda Browne of Blaxland, Blue Mountains, Australia, for her study of the word "the" -- and of the many ways it causes problems for anyone who tries to put things into alphabetical order.

Brian Wansink of Cornell University, for exploring the seemingly boundless appetites of human beings, by feeding them with a self-refilling, bottomless bowl of soup. Painter and Jill North, Obesity Research, vol. Kuo Cheng Hsieh, of Taichung, Taiwan, for patenting a device, in the year , that catches bank robbers by dropping a net over them.

Hsieh, but he seemed to have vanished mysteriously. Some days after the ceremony came news that he is alive and well. Agostino , Santiago A. Plano and Diego A. Golombek of Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Argentina, for their discovery that Viagra aids jetlag recovery in hamsters.

Golombek, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. May of the University of California Los Angeles, for exploring and explaining why woodpeckers don't get headaches.

Howard Stapleton of Merthyr Tydfil, Wales, for inventing an electromechanical teenager repellant -- a device that makes annoying high-pitched noise designed to be audible to teenagers but not to adults ; and for later using that same technology to make telephone ringtones that are audible to teenagers but probably not to their teachers.

Howard Stapleton planned to attend, but his plans were interrupted by a family medical situation. Nic Svenson and Piers Barnes of the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization , for calculating the number of photographs you must take to almost ensure that nobody in a group photo will have their eyes closed.

Problems with Using Long Words Needlessly. Oppenheimer, Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. Basile Audoly and Sebastien Neukirch of the Université Pierre et Marie Curie, in Paris, for their insights into why, when you bend dry spaghetti, it often breaks into more than two pieces.

The winners delivered their acceptance speech via video recording. Knols, The Lancet, vol. De Jong, Parasitology Today, yd.

De Jong and B. Richard Buckley's Exploding Trousers: John Mainstone and the late Thomas Parnell of the University of Queensland, Australia, for patiently conducting an experiment that began in the year -- in which a glob of congealed black tar has been slowly, slowly dripping through a funnel, at a rate of approximately one drop every nine years.

Parnell, European Journal of Physics, , pp. Miller of Oak Grove, Missouri, for inventing Neuticles -- artificial replacement testicles for dogs, which are available in three sizes, and three degrees of firmness. The winner was unable to travel, and delivered his acceptance speech via video. The Internet entrepreneurs of Nigeria, for creating and then using e-mail to distribute a bold series of short stories , thus introducing millions of readers to a cast of rich characters -- General Sani Abacha, Mrs.

A Reevaluation of Responses to Moving Objects. Selective Responses to Approaching Objects," F. Simmons, Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. Gauri Nanda of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for inventing an alarm clock that runs away and hides, repeatedly , thus ensuring that people DO get out of bed, and thus theoretically adding many productive hours to the workday.

Edward Cussler of the University of Minnesota and Brian Gettelfinger of the University of Minnesota and the University of Wisconsin, for conducting a careful experiment to settle the longstanding scientific question: Tyler, and Brian D. Williams, Applied Herpetology, vol. Yoshiro Nakamats of Tokyo, Japan, for photographing and retrospectively analyzing every meal he has consumed during a period of 34 years and counting. Polar Biology , vol.

The winners were unable to attend the ceremony because they could not obtain United States visas to visit the United States. Meyer-Rochow sent an acceptance speech via video.

Social Forces , vol. Ramesh Balasubramaniam of the University of Ottawa, and Michael Turvey of the University of Connecticut and Haskins Laboratory, for exploring and explaining the dynamics of hula-hooping. Turvey, Biological Cybernetics , vol. Jillian Clarke of the Chicago High School for Agricultural Sciences , and then Howard University, for investigating the scientific validity of the Five-Second Rule about whether it's safe to eat food that's been dropped on the floor.

The Coca-Cola Company of Great Britain , for using advanced technology to convert ordinary tap water into Dasani, a transparent form of water, which for precautionary reasons has been made unavailable to consumers.

Smith and his father, the late Frank J. Daniel Simons of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Christopher Chabris of Harvard University, for demonstrating that when people pay close attention to something, it's all too easy to overlook anything else -- even a woman in a gorilla suit.

Simons and Christopher F. The Vatican , for outsourcing prayers to India. Daisuke Inoue of Hyogo, Japan, for inventing karaoke , thereby providing an entirely new way for people to learn to tolerate each other.

Batty and Lawrence M. Dill, Biology Letters , vol. Spark, Annals of Improbable Research, vol. Spark , on behalf of John Paul Stapp's widow, Lilly. Murphy III, on behalf of his late father. Also see their subsequent publications. Yukio Hirose of Kanazawa University, for his chemical investigation of a bronze statue, in the city of Kanazawa , that fails to attract pigeons.

John Trinkaus , of the Zicklin School of Business , New York City, for meticulously collecting data and publishing more than 80 detailed academic reports about things that annoyed him such as: The Flint crisis has been the subject of many documentaries, as well as fictional dramatizations. How a whole city was poisoned" about the crisis. It has been described as a "riveting, authoritative account of the government blunders, mendacity and arrogance" that caused the crisis.

In May , it was announced that Dr. Mona Hanna-Attisha was in the process of writing a "dramatic first-hand account" of the Flint Water Crisis.

On January 28, , rapper Jon Connor from Flint released a song titled "Fresh Water for Flint" about the crisis and how it has affected his family. In the spring of , Associate professor of conducting at the University of Colorado Boulder , Andrea Ramsey, in reaction to the Flint water crisis, composed a choral song titled, "But a Flint Holds Fire".

Children choirs throughout the country have performed the song. Michigan native and actor Jeff Daniels directed a play called Flint , a "heartfelt and brutally honest story of two couples struggling to endure and believe in the American dream" set in , at his Purple Rose Theatre in Chelsea, Michigan. It ran from January 18 through March 10, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Flint Water Crisis. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably.

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Instead of having a paragraph for each work, consolidate into short listings in "Further reading" section, and remove redundant works that don't add anything beyond this article and other works listed. Ecology portal Environment portal Michigan portal Water portal. American Journal of Public Health. Retrieved January 30, Retrieved January 16, Retrieved January 29, Retrieved February 27, Retrieved June 29, Retrieved February 9, Retrieved November 29, Flint cuts water flow from Detroit after nearly 50 years".

Retrieved November 13, Detroit terminated its contract with the city effective April 17 last year when Flint decided to purchase water through the KWA. Retrieved May 8, Retrieved February 13, Retrieved February 23, Retrieved March 3, Retrieved March 30, Says risky to switch water source again".

Retrieved April 24, Retrieved June 14, Retrieved October 17, Retrieved March 1, More than 30, water samples have been tested in Flint since the crisis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: Retrieved February 6, No more free bottled water for Flint residents". Retrieved April 7, Retrieved April 13, Retrieved April 23, Retrieved April 25, Retrieved April 27, Nestlé to Donate Water to Flint Colorlines". Retrieved May 14, Retrieved January 11, Retrieved August 14, Retrieved May 31, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Retrieved April 8, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Retrieved March 24, Rick Snyder declares end of financial emergency". Michigan Live Media Group. Retrieved July 18, Retrieved December 6, It's terminating water contract covering Flint, Genesee County in one year". Retrieved January 9, Retrieved June 17, Retrieved February 8, Retrieved February 4, The Detroit Free Press.

Retrieved March 2, Retrieved September 2, Retrieved December 30, Retrieved October 8, Ananich calls for emergency funding from the state to address Flint water crisis". Retrieved January 13, Archived from the original on January 16, Retrieved January 19, Retrieved February 3, Retrieved October 12, Retrieved November 19, Modeling temporal trends of lead level since returning to Detroit water system".

Science of the Total Environment. Retrieved December 15, Retrieved May 26, The Journal of Pediatrics. Retrieved January 24, Retrieved January 7, Retrieved January 12, Retrieved January 27, Retrieved August 11, Retrieved January 21, Retrieved January 22, Retrieved February 2, Retrieved March 11, Retrieved December 16, Rick Snyder announces Flint Water Task Force to review state, federal and municipal actions, offer recommendations" Office of the Governor press release.

Retrieved October 21, Retrieved December 29, Retrieved November 16, State "fundamentally accountable" for Flint crisis". Retrieved March 23, Flint Water Advisory Task Force. Retrieved March 21, Flint Water Study Updates. Retrieved January 17, Retrieved January 15, The New York Times. Manslaughter charge possible in Flint". Snyder plans to do about Flint water crisis". Rick Snyder's Flint water emails".

Retrieved January 26, Rick Snyder releases departmental emails produced regarding Flint water crisis" State of Michigan official site press release. Retrieved February 12, Retrieved February 26, Retrieved March 10, Retrieved February 5, Retrieved November 14, Mackinac Center for Public Policy. Retrieved March 4, Retrieved January 14, Retrieved March 15, Snyder, EPA chief testify in front of Congress".

Retrieved March 17, Retrieved February 10, Retrieved April 6, Retrieved March 28, Retrieved December 18, Retrieved January 10, Retrieved January 5, Retrieved January 6, Snyder signs executive order to create new Flint water committee". Retrieved January 18, Retrieved March 16, Health and Human Services to lead federal response of Flint water crisis".

Archived January 29, , at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved January 28, Retrieved February 14, Retrieved February 18, Retrieved 2 September Retrieved June 2, Retrieved April 20, Retrieved May 4, Retrieved July 29, Governor Rick Snyder, et.

Retrieved November 15, Retrieved January 25, Snyder sued in class action lawsuit over Flint water crisis". Retrieved April 19, Retrieved March 7, Retrieved March 9, Retrieved April 1, Retrieved March 25, Retrieved May 18, Retrieved June 23, Retrieved January 8, Retrieved January 20, Archived from the original on January 29, Retrieved January 23, Retrieved February 24, Pipe replacement to begin next month".

Retrieved February 16, Retrieved July 19, Retrieved November 17, Retrieved February 1, Sources of exposure, health effects and policy implications". Society for Neuroscience USA.