Origin of Reptiles

ORIGIN & EVOLUTION OF REPTILES

Comparative Nitrogen Excretion
Please try again later. A variety of commercially available foods are available in moist, canned, and dry pellet forms. Rapport d'activité annuel They were dinosaurs with bird-like pelvic girdle in which ischium and pubis bones were directed towards posterior as found in modern birds. From an economical standpoint this makes sense, as eliminating water by increasing renal filtration rate can be energetically costly for birds. Skull was monocondylic for better movement of head.

Elimination

metabolism

These respectively evolved from dinosaurs and from early therapsids, which were both traditionally called reptiles. Mammals are a clade , and therefore the cladists are happy to acknowledge the traditional taxon Mammalia ; and birds, too, are a clade, universally ascribed to the formal taxon Aves. Mammalia and Aves are, in fact, subclades within the grand clade of the Amniota. But the traditional class Reptilia is not a clade. It is just a section of the clade Amniota: It cannot be defined by synapomorphies , as is the proper way.

Instead, it is defined by a combination of the features it has and the features it lacks: At best, the cladists suggest, we could say that the traditional Reptilia are 'non-avian, non-mammalian amniotes'. Despite the early proposals for replacing the paraphyletic Reptilia with a monophyletic Sauropsida , which includes birds, that term was never adopted widely or, when it was, was not applied consistently.

In , Jacques Gauthier proposed a cladistic definition of Reptilia as a monophyletic node-based crown group containing turtles, lizards and snakes, crocodilians, and birds, their common ancestor and all its descendants. Because the actual relationship of turtles to other reptiles was not yet well understood at this time, Gauthier's definition came to be considered inadequate.

A variety of other definitions were proposed by other scientists in the years following Gauthier's paper. The first such new definition, which attempted to adhere to the standards of the PhyloCode , was published by Modesto and Anderson in Modesto and Anderson reviewed the many previous definitions and proposed a modified definition, which they intended to retain most traditional content of the group while keeping it stable and monophyletic.

They defined Reptilia as all amniotes closer to Lacerta agilis and Crocodylus niloticus than to Homo sapiens. This stem-based definition is equivalent to the more common definition of Sauropsida, which Modesto and Anderson synonymized with Reptilia, since the latter is better known and more frequently used.

Unlike most previous definitions of Reptilia, however, Modesto and Anderson's definition includes birds, [1] as they are within the clade that includes both lizards and crocodiles. Classification to order level of the reptiles, after Benton, The cladogram presented here illustrates the "family tree" of reptiles, and follows a simplified version of the relationships found by M. Synapsida mammals and their extinct relatives. Rhynchocephalia tuatara and their extinct relatives. Squamata lizards and snakes.

Archosauriformes crocodiles , birds , dinosaurs and extinct relatives. The placement of turtles has historically been highly variable. Classically, turtles were considered to be related to the primitive anapsid reptiles. So far three turtle genomes have been sequenced.

The origin of the reptiles lies about — million years ago, in the steaming swamps of the late Carboniferous period, when the first reptiles evolved from advanced reptiliomorphs. The oldest known animal that may have been an amniote is Casineria though it may have been a temnospondyl. The earliest amniotes, including stem-reptiles those amniotes closer to modern reptiles than to mammals , were largely overshadowed by larger stem-tetrapods, such as Cochleosaurus , and remained a small, inconspicuous part of the fauna until the Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse.

Primitive tetrapods were particularly devastated, while stem-reptiles fared better, being ecologically adapted to the drier conditions that followed.

Amniotes acquired new niches at a faster rate than before the collapse and at a much faster rate than primitive tetrapods. They acquired new feeding strategies including herbivory and carnivory, previously only having been insectivores and piscivores. It was traditionally assumed that the first reptiles retained an anapsid skull inherited from their ancestors.

These are the "mammal-like amniotes", or stem-mammals, that later gave rise to the true mammals. Turtles have been traditionally believed to be surviving parareptiles, on the basis of their anapsid skull structure, which was assumed to be primitive trait.

With the close of the Carboniferous , the amniotes became the dominant tetrapod fauna. While primitive, terrestrial reptiliomorphs still existed, the synapsid amniotes evolved the first truly terrestrial megafauna giant animals in the form of pelycosaurs , such as Edaphosaurus and the carnivorous Dimetrodon. In the mid-Permian period, the climate became drier, resulting in a change of fauna: The pelycosaurs were replaced by the therapsids. The parareptiles, whose massive skull roofs had no postorbital holes, continued and flourished throughout the Permian.

The pareiasaurian parareptiles reached giant proportions in the late Permian, eventually disappearing at the close of the period the turtles being possible survivors. Early in the period, the modern reptiles, or crown-group reptiles , evolved and split into two main lineages: Both groups remained lizard-like and relatively small and inconspicuous during the Permian.

The close of the Permian saw the greatest mass extinction known see the Permian—Triassic extinction event , an event prolonged by the combination of two or more distinct extinction pulses.

These were characterized by elongated hind legs and an erect pose, the early forms looking somewhat like long-legged crocodiles. The archosaurs became the dominant group during the Triassic period, though it took 30 million years before their diversity was as great as the animals that lived in the Permian.

Since reptiles, first rauisuchians and then dinosaurs, dominated the Mesozoic era, the interval is popularly known as the "Age of Reptiles". The dinosaurs also developed smaller forms, including the feather-bearing smaller theropods. In the Cretaceous period, these gave rise to the first true birds. The sister group to Archosauromorpha is Lepidosauromorpha , containing lizards and tuataras , as well as their fossil relatives.

Lepidosauromorpha contained at least one major group of the Mesozoic sea reptiles: The phylogenetic placement of other main groups of fossil sea reptiles — the ichthyopterygians including ichthyosaurs and the sauropterygians , which evolved in the early Triassic — is more controversial.

Different authors linked these groups either to lepidosauromorphs [54] or to archosauromorphs, [55] [56] [57] and ichthyopterygians were also argued to be diapsids that did not belong to the least inclusive clade containing lepidosauromorphs and archosauromorphs.

The close of the Cretaceous period saw the demise of the Mesozoic era reptilian megafauna see the Cretaceous—Paleogene extinction event. Of the large marine reptiles, only sea turtles were left; and of the non-marine large reptiles, only the semi-aquatic crocodiles and broadly similar choristoderes survived the extinction, with the latter becoming extinct in the Miocene. This dramatic extinction pattern at the end of the Mesozoic led into the Cenozoic. Mammals and birds filled the empty niches left behind by the reptilian megafauna and, while reptile diversification slowed, bird and mammal diversification took an exponential turn.

After the extinction of most archosaur and marine reptile lines by the end of the Cretaceous, reptile diversification continued throughout the Cenozoic. All squamates and turtles have a three-chambered heart consisting of two atria , one variably partitioned ventricle , and two aortas that lead to the systemic circulation.

The degree of mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the three-chambered heart varies depending on the species and physiological state. Under different conditions, deoxygenated blood can be shunted back to the body or oxygenated blood can be shunted back to the lungs.

This variation in blood flow has been hypothesized to allow more effective thermoregulation and longer diving times for aquatic species, but has not been shown to be a fitness advantage. Some squamate species e. This is made possible by a muscular ridge that subdivides the ventricle during ventricular diastole and completely divides it during ventricular systole. Because of this ridge, some of these squamates are capable of producing ventricular pressure differentials that are equivalent to those seen in mammalian and avian hearts.

Crocodilians have an anatomically four-chambered heart, similar to birds , but also have two systemic aortas and are therefore capable of bypassing their pulmonary circulation. Modern non-avian reptiles exhibit some form of cold-bloodedness i. Due to a less stable core temperature than birds and mammals , reptilian biochemistry requires enzymes capable of maintaining efficiency over a greater range of temperatures than in the case for warm-blooded animals.

As in all animals, reptilian muscle action produces heat. In large reptiles, like leatherback turtles , the low surface-to-volume ratio allows this metabolically produced heat to keep the animals warmer than their environment even though they do not have a warm-blooded metabolism. The benefit of a low resting metabolism is that it requires far less fuel to sustain bodily functions.

By using temperature variations in their surroundings, or by remaining cold when they do not need to move, reptiles can save considerable amounts of energy compared to endothermic animals of the same size. It is generally assumed that reptiles are unable to produce the sustained high energy output necessary for long distance chases or flying. Energetic studies on some reptiles have shown active capacities equal to or greater than similar sized warm-blooded animals.

All reptiles breathe using lungs. Aquatic turtles have developed more permeable skin, and some species have modified their cloaca to increase the area for gas exchange. Lung ventilation is accomplished differently in each main reptile group. In squamates , the lungs are ventilated almost exclusively by the axial musculature. This is also the same musculature that is used during locomotion. Because of this constraint, most squamates are forced to hold their breath during intense runs.

Some, however, have found a way around it. Varanids, and a few other lizard species, employ buccal pumping as a complement to their normal "axial breathing". This allows the animals to completely fill their lungs during intense locomotion, and thus remain aerobically active for a long time. Tegu lizards are known to possess a proto- diaphragm , which separates the pulmonary cavity from the visceral cavity.

While not actually capable of movement, it does allow for greater lung inflation, by taking the weight of the viscera off the lungs. Crocodilians actually have a muscular diaphragm that is analogous to the mammalian diaphragm.

The difference is that the muscles for the crocodilian diaphragm pull the pubis part of the pelvis, which is movable in crocodilians back, which brings the liver down, thus freeing space for the lungs to expand. This type of diaphragmatic setup has been referred to as the " hepatic piston ". The airways form a number of double tubular chambers within each lung. On inhalation and exhalation air moves through the airways in the same direction, thus creating a unidirectional airflow through the lungs.

A similar system is found in birds, [85] monitor lizards [86] and iguanas. Most reptiles lack a secondary palate , meaning that they must hold their breath while swallowing. Crocodilians have evolved a bony secondary palate that allows them to continue breathing while remaining submerged and protect their brains against damage by struggling prey. Skinks family Scincidae also have evolved a bony secondary palate, to varying degrees.

Snakes took a different approach and extended their trachea instead. Their tracheal extension sticks out like a fleshy straw, and allows these animals to swallow large prey without suffering from asphyxiation. How turtles and tortoises breathe has been the subject of much study. To date, only a few species have been studied thoroughly enough to get an idea of how those turtles breathe. The varied results indicate that turtles and tortoises have found a variety of solutions to this problem.

The difficulty is that most turtle shells are rigid and do not allow for the type of expansion and contraction that other amniotes use to ventilate their lungs. Some turtles, such as the Indian flapshell Lissemys punctata , have a sheet of muscle that envelops the lungs. When it contracts, the turtle can exhale. When at rest, the turtle can retract the limbs into the body cavity and force air out of the lungs.

When the turtle protracts its limbs, the pressure inside the lungs is reduced, and the turtle can suck air in. Turtle lungs are attached to the inside of the top of the shell carapace , with the bottom of the lungs attached via connective tissue to the rest of the viscera.

By using a series of special muscles roughly equivalent to a diaphragm , turtles are capable of pushing their viscera up and down, resulting in effective respiration, since many of these muscles have attachment points in conjunction with their forelimbs indeed, many of the muscles expand into the limb pockets during contraction.

Breathing during locomotion has been studied in three species, and they show different patterns. Adult female green sea turtles do not breathe as they crutch along their nesting beaches. They hold their breath during terrestrial locomotion and breathe in bouts as they rest. North American box turtles breathe continuously during locomotion, and the ventilation cycle is not coordinated with the limb movements. The last species to have been studied is the red-eared slider, which also breathes during locomotion, but takes smaller breaths during locomotion than during small pauses between locomotor bouts, indicating that there may be mechanical interference between the limb movements and the breathing apparatus.

Box turtles have also been observed to breathe while completely sealed up inside their shells. Reptilian skin is covered in a horny epidermis , making it watertight and enabling reptiles to live on dry land, in contrast to amphibians. Compared to mammalian skin, that of reptiles is rather thin and lacks the thick dermal layer that produces leather in mammals.

In lepidosaurians , such as lizards and snakes, the whole skin is covered in overlapping epidermal scales. Such scales were once thought to be typical of the class Reptilia as a whole, but are now known to occur only in lepidosaurians. Lacking a thick dermis, reptilian leather is not as strong as mammalian leather. It is used in leather-wares for decorative purposes for shoes, belts and handbags, particularly crocodile skin. Reptiles shed their skin through a process called ecdysis which occurs continuously throughout their lifetime.

In particular, younger reptiles tend to shed once every 5—6 weeks while adults shed times a year. Once full size, the frequency of shedding drastically decreases. The process of ecdysis involves forming a new layer of skin under the old one. Proteolytic enzymes and lymphatic fluid is secreted between the old and new layers of skin.

Consequently, this lifts the old skin from the new one allowing shedding to occur. Traumatic injuries on the other hand, form scars that will not allow new scales to form and disrupt the process of ecdysis. Excretion is performed mainly by two small kidneys. In diapsids, uric acid is the main nitrogenous waste product; turtles, like mammals , excrete mainly urea.

Unlike the kidneys of mammals and birds, reptile kidneys are unable to produce liquid urine more concentrated than their body fluid. This is because they lack a specialized structure called a loop of Henle , which is present in the nephrons of birds and mammals. Because of this, many reptiles use the colon to aid in the reabsorption of water. Some are also able to take up water stored in the bladder.

Excess salts are also excreted by nasal and lingual salt glands in some reptiles. In all reptiles the urinogenital ducts and the anus both empty into an organ called a cloaca.

In some reptiles, a midventral wall in the cloaca may open into a urinary bladder, but not all. It is present in all turtles and tortoises as well as most lizards, but is lacking in the monitor lizard , the legless lizards. Amphibians do not drink to obtain water ; instead they are able to absorb water through a region of the skin called the ventral pelvic area.

All birds excrete a paste like substance called uric acid which contains the waste nitrogen independent of habitat. It initially begins as watery urine which travels down the ureters , from the kidney to the cloaca. The cloaca is a unified exit for the gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive systems. In the cloaca, the urine mixes with faecal matter from the digestive tract and as much water is removed as possible to produce a dry, crystalline paste containing uric acid.

A small amount of watery urine may be excreted as well. The method of nitrogen excretion depends on the habitat; aquatic reptiles e. Whilst reptiles living in drier conditions e. This helps to conserve water and during development in the egg, a build-up is not fatal. Uric acid, as with birds, is excreted from the cloaca. The kidneys of reptiles do not have loops of Henle and so they are unable to produce concentrated urine also, whilst a large bladder is present in chelonians turtles snakes and some lizards do not have a bladder at all.

All mammals produce primarily urea sometime ammonia which is excreted in urine. Mammals are able to osmoregulate and maximise water conservation by varying the concentration of urine depending on the hydration of the body.

Mammals living in environments with plentiful access to fresh water will excrete large amounts of dilute urine. Mammals living in dry or marine environments will excrete small amounts of concentrated urine. Osmoregulation in mammals is mainly controlled by the hormone ADH , its release when a mammal is dehydrated will result in the reduction of water loss and increased reabsorption of water in the kidneys by the loop of Henle.

Osmoregulation has been mentioned above in some cases, it can be associated with the excretion of nitrogenous waste because without correct osmoregulation, levels of ammonia can build within the body.

Another time I came on board and Moraney was looking at Earth while monitoring all these meters analyzing the atmosphere of Earth. He looked very sad, and I asked him what the matter was. They don't understand how we can just destroy our environment.

It's not like we have another place to do. The Draconians are the force behind the repression of human populations everywhere in this galaxy instilling fear-based belief systems and restrictive hierarchies. I asked Moraney about them, and he said,. I have witnessed a deep respect for this race. The Andromedans consider the Draconians the "ultimate warriors," in a negative sense. Their forefathers came to our universe from another separate universe or reality system.

When this occurred, no one really knows. The Draconians themselves are not really clear on when they got here. The Draconians teach their masses that they were here in this universe first, before humans, and as such they are heirs to the universe and should be considered royalty. They find disgust in the fact that humans do not recognize this as a truth. They have conquered many star systems and have genetically altered many of the life forms they have encountered.

The area of the galaxy most densely populated with Draconian sub-races is in the Orion system, which is a huge system, and systems in Rigel and Capella. The mind set or consciousness of the majority of races in these systems is Service-to-Self, and as such they are always invading, subverting and manipulating less advanced races, and using their technology for control and domination. This is a very old and ancient war, and the peace that does not exist is always being tested by these beings, who believe that fear rules, and love is weak.

They believe that those they perceive to be less fortunate, in comparison to them, are meant to be slaves.

This belief system is promoted at birth in the reptilian races, wherein the mother, after giving birth, will abandon the offspring to fend for themselves. If they survive they are cared for by a warrior class that uses these children for games of combat and amusement. So, you can see that the reptilians are forever stuck in survival mode. This means they have no boundaries in what they will do to other beings.

They are taught the Draconian version of the history of the ' Great Galactic War ', which teaches that humans are at fault for invading the universe, and that humans selfishly wanted the Draconian society to starve and struggle for the basic materials that would allow them to exist. Now, there are some real similarities there. The expression 'Draconian thought' is an expression on our world.

I would suggest you research that. The Rest of the Galactic Hierarchy We'll look at the positives. There are so many that want to help. For those of you who are "trekkies", you know the number one rule. You don't intervene with an evolving race unless you're asked. That happens to be a reality. They will not directly intervene - at least they are not supposed to - unless they are specifically asked to.

Those people who are contactees have a reincarnational lineage that leads back to many of these positive races, which is why it is not considered intervention. Now, in our galaxy there are many councils.

I don't know everything about all those councils, but I do know about the Andromedan council, which is a group of beings from different star systems that come together and discuss what is going on in the galaxy. It is not a political body. What they have been recently discussing is the tyranny in our future, years from now, because that affects everybody.

Apparently what they have done, through time travel, is that they have been able to figure out where the significant shift in energy occurred that causes the tyranny years in our future. They have traced it back to our solar system, and they have been able to further track it down to Earth, Earths moon and Mars. The very first meeting the Andromedan council had was to decide whether or not to directly intervene with what was going on here.

According to Moraney, there were only 78 systems that met this first time. Of those 78, just short of half decided that they wanted nothing to do with us at all, regardless of the problems. I think it is really important that you know why they wanted nothing to do with us. We are talking about star systems that are hundreds of millions of light years away from us. Even some who have never met us. They just knew the vibration of the planet reflected those on it. The reasons why they wanted nothing to do with us is that from their perspective, Earth humans don't respect themselves , each other or the planet.

What possibly can be the value of Earth humans? Fortunately, the majority of the council gave the opinion that because Earth has been manipulated for over 5, years, that we deserved an opportunity to prove ourselves - to at least have a shot at proving the other part of the council wrong. So, the Andromedan council passed a directive that all extraterrestrial presence will be off our planet no later than August 12, Isn't it also curious that August 12, is also a resonant node for the Montauk Project?

Also, in year progressions, ,,, , , , The implications are interesting. The year was also designated the new target date for implementation of the New World Order, one year prior to ]. They want everything extraterrestrial on the planet, in the planet and Earth's moon out of here by that date.

The reason for this is that they want to see how we will act when we are not being manipulated. We are all being manipulated, and my first suggestion is to throw your television set away. I can't tell you how sincere I am about that.

They are teaching you what to think, not how to think. If you give that up, you become a robot. I know it's going to be tough. This determination that ET influence will end by August 12, will be interesting, because living inside our planet to miles under the surface are reptilians who have been here a very long time, 17 humans from Sirius B, and Grey clones inside the Earth and on the moon.

Most of the original Greys are on Phobos, one of the moons of Mars , which is an artificial satellite. There are also around Orion beings inside the Earth from 9 different races. There are a lot of "bad boys" here who have technology thousands of years ahead of us.

It is estimated that Grey technology is 2, years ahead of us. The Orion group who control the Greys have technology approximately 3, years ahead of us. Nobody really knows how far the Draconians are, because they are incredibly elusive. The group from Sirius B are approximately years ahead of us.

They have a camera that they can take a picture and separate it out to get data all the way back to conception. Say I have a liver problem. They can go back and get the data relative to my healthy liver and project it holographically and heal the liver. This is holographic technology. It is literally me, healing myself. We have the same capabilities using our minds. The key is to open it up to the idea that everything that we record in our mind is recorded holographically.

Every single thought is recorded holographically. When you are trying to create something in your life, through your mediations, don't look at it the way you normally do. Move around it, behind it, on top of it, beneath it. Train you mind and subconscious to see it for what it really is. They say we have this ability - they need technology to do this, but we don't, because we have the benefit of already having been on 11 th density.

I want to talk to you about Lyrae and how the human race colonized our galaxy. Based on the age of the Suns and the planets in our galaxy, it was decided that the human life form was to be created in the Lyran system. The human race lived there for approximately 40 million years, evolving. The orientation of the human race in Lyrae was agricultural in nature. Apparently, we were very plentiful and abundant, and lived in peace. Then, one day, huge craft appeared in the sky.

This scenario is the theme of the movie Independence Day , to air in the theatres nationally on July 7, ]. A large ship came out of the huge craft and approached the planet Bila , and reptilians from Alpha Draconis disembarked.

Apparently, the Alpha Draconians and the Lyrans were afraid of each other. I told you before that the Alpha Draconians were apparently the first race in our galaxy to have interstellar space travel, and have had this capability for 4 billion years. Well, when the Draconians came and saw Bila, with all its abundance and food and natural resources, the Draconians wanted to control it. There was apparently a miscommunication or misunderstanding between the Draconians and Lyran humans.

The Lyrans wanted to know more about the Draconians before some kind of "assistance" was offered. The Draconians mistook the communication as a refusal, and subsequently destroyed three out of 14 planets in the Lyran system. The Lyrans were basically defenseless. The planets Bila, Teka and Merck were destroyed. Over 50 million Lyran humans were killed. It is at this point in history that the Draconians began to look at humans as a food source.

This is how old the struggle is between the reptilian and human races. Now, I must make the point that not all the reptilian or human races are "dark". There is a mix. When we start meeting these races, you are going to have to trust your gut instinct. But, they are coming. Hale Bopp is on its way here. It is not a comet. I want to talk about Jehovah. He's a piece of work. I want you to know he's still alive and still scooting around, wreaking havoc.

He still doesn't have his stuff together. I mean, all you really have to do is take all your personal emotions away from your observation of the Bible, or the Old Testament, and just see what Jehovah did. It's clearly psychotic behavior. I don't want a "God" like that! It's amazing how some people will defend it, saying "well, he was justified in killing everybody".

The word " Jehovah " originally meant, in the Chaldean and Hebrew, " is, was, and will be ". The reason he was given that name is because he lives such a long time. They live thousands of years in one incarnation.

It never meant "creator of all things". He used technology to promote himself as a "God", and fear is an incredible tool when you want to get people to do something. Some of your have no doubt observed this factor in some of the activities of the world governments. The Chaldean people were the remnants of the Sumerian people.

This you probably already know. Much of the Hebrew religion and the religion of the Sumerians are similar. The books of Moses do not in any way suggest that Jehovah was in any way the only "lord of the Elohim". The expressions "Elohim" and "Nephilim" are used in the original Hebrew tongue, and these expressions are plural in nature, which means that in their terms there was more than one "God". That should be a major tip to everyone. Abraham, whose name was "Abramou", did consider Jehovah to be a "God" because of the technology that Jehovah and the other Elohim possessed.

Many of the "Gods" did the same thing. They used technology to strike fear into the people, and they worshipped the "Gods" to avoid punishment. Any of this sound familiar, here in ? Marduk , whom we also know as the Egyptian "God" Ra , Enki , and En-lil , were notorious for doing this.

These extraterrestrial manipulators used bigotry because they wanted to control their own groups of people, and each of their offspring procreated with elements of the population of the earth. According to Moraney and Vasais, our native American races are the remnants of the ancient Babylonians. They were brought here and hidden underground just prior to the flood of Noah. Now, what was the flood of Noah? We are told that it rained for 40 days and 40 nights.

According to Moraney, the flood of Noah was as a result of the movement of Earth from one orbit to another around the Sun. The Earth was apparently hit with a tractor beam and literally moved to an orbit further out from the Sun. This added five days to our rotational period around the Sun.

The period of this 40 day rain was during the period when the magnetic poles of the Earth rotated degrees. My reason for telling you this is to try and give you a broader perspective. There is just so much more to who we are and who we've been.

We have been manipulated by the "hidden ones". The reason they remain "unseen" is because on-the-whole they are basically afraid of us. They are afraid of something about us. They absolutely do not want us to unite together, because then the "gig" is up. Now, when the extraterrestrials were here in force - that is, during the time referenced in the Bible where is says the Sons of God married the Daughters of Man, they bred and mated with their human wives.

Out of this came offspring, half-breeds. There were at that time, within the last years, predominantly 13 families from Sirius B and Nibiru , who were living here on the planet. These were the tribes of En-lil, Marduk, Enki, etc.

They all had offspring. Those from Nibiru were a tribe that came about as a result of a "marriage" between some groups between Sirius B and Orion. It was in essence a "royal marriage" between groups that formed a "tribe". This "tribe" was called Nibiru.

The word Nibiru , in the ancient Sumerian language, means " between two peoples ". I know Sitchin calls it something else. The offspring were not allowed to go with the extraterrestrial parents when they left the Earth, because they were considered "half-breeds".

The reason they were viewed like this by the extraterrestrials was because of their Terran genetics, which contain certain genes from the primate race. According to Moraney, the first melding between the primate genes and the human species was 28,, BC, and there have been many prototypes. In fact, they just found another prototype in Portugal that is estimated to be , years old. They will discover more. In fact, start looking for some major discoveries in Nigeria.

Apparently, there is a tremendous amount of extraterrestrial technology buried in Nigeria, that has not been tapped yet. When the extraterrestrials left, the real ET's, they left certain types of technology behind. The Indian Veda's discuss some of this technology. They had science teams who were constantly inventing new things, and as they got new technology they discarded the old. Well, it was the Magi , the half-breeds , that were left these technologies. There were 13 major families that were considered under the heading of Magi.

Does that number ring a bell? The members of these 13 families on earth contain the genetics of both Terran and extraterrestrial races that formerly tyrannized the Earth. They were basically left in charge. Some of them were actually Pharaohs. The Magi interbreeding resulted in the cultures we today recognize as the "Ivory Hebrew", the "Mayan", the "Celts", and the "Aryan" races. Now, while all of this was transpiring on the surface of the planet, underground there was another extraterrestrial race that had been here - a race that has been here for hundreds of thousands of years.

They are, of course, the reptilian race , which the Bible refers to as the " serpent race ". They are still here, and they can't stand the radiation of the sun. They haven't been able to live on the surface of the planet since the last major war that occurred here approximately , years ago. They are basically hyperborean in nature.

They have control of the planet at depths from to miles down. That's their turf, and no one contests that. That is why when people go into the inner earth, they enter via the poles. They do not go through the crust, because these reptilians simply to not like humans. They consider us to be "fleas" on the surface. Again, prejudice as a concept has its origin in extraterrestrial perspectives. All of the concepts involving languages and social structures for human societies were introduced by extraterrestrial sources.

Reptile Families