I looked and searched everywhere for a bike that could fit me and I came across Workmans Cycles. The Meridian v8 was superior to both Classe in both two-channel and home theater. Established March 17, , The Alexandria Town Talk is a daily newspaper for Alexandria-Pineville and the thirteen parishes which comprise central Louisiana. Submitted by harbir on May 25, - 6: Nine aldermen represented the four wards of the city — two from each ward and one elected at-large. I could see that my son was discouraged.
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Prior to the scheduled firing of the TDU-1 engine, the control group detected anomalies in the primary system of attitude control, which used the infrared sensor. Although the system as a whole seemed to be functioning fine, the sensor itself was not responding correctly. On the sixty-fourth orbit. The TDU-1 retrorocket automatically fired on time at 2h52 hours Moscow Time, but instead of reentering the atmosphere, the spaceship was boosted into a higher orbit.
Its descent capsule decayed more than five years later. Development of a third military application after reconnaissance and navigation satellites. Midas II test satellite successfully launched, a test of an USAF surveillance system designed to provide warning of long-range missile launching, the first anti-missile early warning satellite. The second launch, which placed an infrared scanning satellite into orbit for the first time, obtained valuable infrared background data relating to the earth's surface.
MIDAS 2 was a 2,kg satellite designed to measure infrared background and define infrared sources. The Agena A upper stage was used as the spacecraft bus and provided power and attitude control. In addition, the satellite carried experiments to measure cosmic radiation, atmospheric density, thermal emission and reflected solar radiation from the earth, and micrometeorites.
A plasma probe was included too. MIDAS 2 was successfully launched but the satellite tumbled as it circled the Earth and, after the first dozen orbits, the communication link failed.
The payload could not be operated as planned. Navy Transit II-B an experimental navigation satellite with two payloads navigation and radiation measurement , successfully launched. This was the first time that two instrumented satellites have been placed into orbit at the same time.
On 6 August , during a Class 1 solar flare, Transit II-A transmitted 6 minutes of clear reception showing history of development of ultraviolet and X-ray emission in relation to ionospheric behavior and to solar-radio noise. It has an expected year orbital lifetime. Transit 2A was a kg satellite, similar to Transit 1B , which carried a navigation payload experiment to demonstrated the feasibility of using satellites as navigational aids.
It also returned geodetic data. This navigation satellite transmitted for about four months, until 26 October A planned Transit 2B was considered redundant and never built. Transit satellites placed in orbit were completely successful. All subsystems operated properly and all four radios transmitted normally.
Excellent refraction data and limited data on the shape of the Earth were obtained. Position determination experiments from these satellites have proven Transit fixes to be accurate to within metres. Ships anywhere on the globe will be able to receive not only navigational information but also the exact times and the predicted orbits of the satellites. Voyages for ships of all nations can thus become safer and more efficient.
The elint mission was completely kept in the dark; instead, the satellite was presented as a Solar radiation observattory Solrad. Reportedly monitored for the first time the origines of a Solar storm. GREB was a solar radiation experiment satellite launched pick-a-back on Transit in a multiple payload experiment.
Solrad was a sphere, 50 cm in diameter and weighing 19 kg. These solar "weather reports," correlated with a host of ground level observations, help to unravel the mysteries of ionospheric behavior and the mechanisms of solar storms. This satellite system has contributed significantly to scientific knowledge.
For example, in August , there occurred a solar flare lasting 18 minutes. Just as the flare began, a satellite came within range of a ground receiving station, and six minutes of clear signals depicted the history of the way that ultraviolet and X-ray emission developed. The sequence of events in the early life of a solar storm is extremely rapid. No previous observations provided a continuous record of the first minutes of a solar storm's birth. This satellite was put into orbit by the same launcher which launched Transit 2A.
It had a dual function: When the name GRAB emerged, it was reported to be an acronym for "Galactic radiation and background", which it never was. Navy elint satellite system became operational in July and was operated until August The system obtained information on Soviet air defense radars that could not be observed by Air Force and Navy aircraft flying elint missions along accessible borders in Europe and the western Pacific.
The Grab satellite's simple, circular orbit passed it through the energy beams of Soviet radar whose pulses traveled straight and far beyond the horizon into space.
Discoverer XII failed to go into polar orbit. Following 12 consecutive failures, Discoverer 12 was designed to develop and improve launching techniques, propulsion, communications, and orbital performance and to conduct advanced engineering tests, including separation, deceleration, reentry through the atmosphere, and recovery from the sea of an instrument package. The cylindrical Agena A stage carried a telemetry system, tape recorder, receivers for command signals from the ground, a horizon scanner, and a kg package that included a recovery capsule with recovery aids, retrorockets, and telemetry equipment to measure its performance.
The payload was identical to that of Discoverer 8 , with the addition of a doppler beacon and external lights installed on the Agena A casing for tracking purposes. It did not carry camera. But, again, this kg Discoverer failed to rech orbit, when the Agena-A attitude control failed. Gunter 's Discoverer 2, 3, 12, 13 ;. Soviet Union Korolev's Design Bureau ; 49th failure.
Second test of a Vostok 1 manned spacecraft. While having the old set of orientation systems, this spacecraft was far more advanced than its modest predecessor Korabl Sputnik 1 , since it was equipped with an operational life support system and a means of recovery.
Two dogs, Chayka and Lisichka, were trained to fly into orbit on board. The test went awry right from the beginning: The inert strap-on broke away from the main vehicle, and the booster eventually exploded into pieces 28,5 seconds after lift-off. Although the descent apparatus separated from the stack, the explosion killed both passengers.
At ignition one of the combustion chambers in strap on Block B or G burned through. The strap on separated from the core at 17 seconds into the flight and the launch vehicle exploded at Korabl-Sputnik 2 ; Gunter 's Vostok-1K ;. Test to determine the structural integrity of the Mercury capsule and its recovery. Atlas launch vehicle carrying unmanned Mercury capsule exploded 65 seconds after launch from AMR. Mercury Atlas 1 MA-1 was a test vehicle launch with the primary mission goals being to check the integrity of the spacecraft structure and afterbody shingles for a reentry associated with a critical abort and to evaluate the open-loop performance of the Atlas abort-sensing instrumentation system.
The spacecraft was not equipped with an escape system and no test subject was onboard. Lift-off and flight of the vehicle were nominal until At that time, a shock was registered by both the launch vehicle and spacecraft axial accelerometers. When the shock occurred, the vehicle was at approximately 9. All Atlas telemetry was lost at 59 seconds after launch, the time at which final missile destruction was believed to have occurred.
Spacecraft telemetry, however, continued to be transmitted until seconds. The spacecraft was destroyed upon impact in the Atlantic Ocean, about 8 km down range. Most of the spacecraft, engines, and the liquid oxygen vent valve were recovered later from the ocean floor.
None of the primary flight objectives were achieved. Discoverer XIII launched successfully into a polar orbit. On 11 August, its kg Instrumented capsule became the first man-made object ever recovered from space, when it was recovered from the ocean off Hawaii after 18 orbits.
Silken star American flag it carried was presented to the President on 15 August. This event marked the first time that any nation had successfully recovered a man-made object after it had orbited the earth. The capsule was donated to the Smithsonian Institution. Discoverer XIII was a cylinder, 5. Discoverer 13 was a kg satellite designed to test spacecraft engineering techniques and to attempt reentry through the atmosphere, and recovery from the sea of an instrument package.
It represented the first-ever successful recovery of an object from orbit. The Agena A stage carried a telemetry system, a tape recorder, receivers for command signals from the ground, a horizon scanner, and a kg recovery capsule that contained an American flag. It carried no camera. The capsule was bowl-shaped, 56 cm in diameter and 69 cm deep. A kg monitoring system in the capsule reported on selected events, such as firing of the retrorocket, jettisoning of the heat shield, and others.
On 11 August , after 17 orbits, a command was sent from a ground station on Kodiak Island to the spacecraft to start the recovery sequence. The Agena pitched down 60 degrees and the recovery vehicle was ejected. At 15 km, a small parachute was deployed, a radio beacon and strobe lights were activated, and the heat shield was relelased. After stabilization, a larger parachute was deployed. The capsule splashed down in the Pacific Ocean, km north-north-west of Honolulu.
The Haiti Victory, a Navy ship, sent out a helicopter which dropped frogmen into the water to attach a collar to the capsule for helicopter retrieval. It was brought back to the ship and taken to Pearl harbor.
As a metre balllon, most visible and largest satellite launched to date. Echo I, the first passive communications satellite, successfully launched. It reflected a radio message from the President across the Nation, thus demonstrating the feasibility of global radio communications via satellites. The metre-diameter aluminized Mylar-plastic sphere was the most visible and largest satellite launched to date. On 17 August, Echo I was visible to skywatchers and provided reflection for numerous long-range radio tranamissions by private and governmental research agencies in the United States.
On 18 August, the satellite was utilized for tram-Atlantic communications when carrier signal was received by the French Telecommunications Establishment CNET , Subsequently, voice and music transmissions were received by the University of Manchester at Jodrell Bank and other British Installations. On 24 August, Echo I first went into Earth's shadow with its two tracking beacons still operating.
Since going into orbit on 12 August, it had relayed hundreds of telephonic experiments and transmissions. Goddard Space Flight Center scientists, Robert Jastrow and Robert Bryant, reported that atmospheric drag acting on Echo I during the severe solar storm of November 12 was Increased by about a factor of two.
Scientists had previously noted the rise and fall of the density of the upper atmosphere, and the heating effect of a solar flare had been noted on the orbit of Sputnik III in The metre inflatable mylar sphere demonstrated use of radio wave reflection for global communications. It was still orbiting the Earth, having traveled some million km, and was still usable for communication.
On its fourth birthday , the builders of Echo 1 G. According to reports, French National Geographic Institute photographed Echo I simultaneously from precisely located cameras in France and Algeria, in order to join the triangulation systems of France and Algeria. Its aluminum-coated mylar skin wrinkled and misshapen, Echo I was no longer useful in radio-reflecting communications, but it was still clearly visible in the nighttime sky after more than four years of orbiting the earth.
An optical inyestigation made by the Goodyear Aerospace corp. It was part of NASA's program to investigate the feasibility of satellites for global communications including worldwide telephone, radio, and television.
The satellite was a metre-diameter, inflatable sphere of aluminized Mylar plastic, weighing 62 kg and contained an additional Since then, numerous communications experiments have been conducted.
Transmissions have included teletype signals, facsimile photographs, two-way telephone conversations using commercial equipment, trans-continental and trans-Atlantic signal relays, and experiments to learn more about the effects of the ionosphere upon radio signals. Among Echo Its notable "firsts" have been: Other transmissions have included relaying of teletype signals, facsimile photographs, two-way telephone conversations using standard commercial equipment, and experiments to learn more about the effects of the ionosphere on radio signals.
At dusk when the balloon-shaped satellite is in sunlight and passes overhead it is clearly visible as a star-like body, about as bright as Vega. The satellite had demonstrated that large inflatable spheres could be used as passive communications reflectors in space. It also had beacon transmitters for telemetry purposes. Because of the large area-to-mass ratio of the spacecraft, data for the calculation of atmospheric density and solar pressure could be acquired.
The spacecraft was also used to evaluate the technical feasibility of satellite triangulation during the latter portion of its life. Discoverer XIV launched Into polar orbit. Discoverer 14 was the first successful low-resolution photo-surveillance spacecraft. After completing 17 orbits, during a ,km, hour flight, the Agena ejected its SRV reentry vehicle, while over Alaska. The SRV slowed its trajectory to return to Earth.
Down into the atmosphere, it released a parachute, which was sighted km southeast of Honolulu, Hawaii, by the crew of a U. Air Force C recovery aircraft. On the C's third pass over the parachute, the recovery gear trailing behind the aircraft successfully snagged the parachute canopy. The capsule was then reeled in the aircraft. This was the first successful recovery of film from an orbiting satellite cameras operated satisfactorily and the first aerial recovery of an object returning from Earth orbit.
See also Courier I-B below. Courier 1A was a kg military experimental communications satellite. The Courier were developed under the supervision of the U.
Courier 1A failed when its launcher exploded about 2. Korabl Sputnik 2 Sputnik 5 Spacecraft: Strelka and Belka dogs became national heroes and put on display. Coincidentally, this first hr. Spacecraft II launched into orbit by the U. On 21 August, U. This was the first successful recovery of life forms from orbit. This time, the period of flight was reduced to one day to minimize the risks of equipment malfunction, and recovery was successfully accomplished, for the first time in history, with the two dogs becoming national heroes and put on display, obviously healthy despite their experience.
Third testflight of the Vostok spaceship with a 4,kg craft. This third Vostok 1 test carried two dogs, Beika and Strelka, along with numerous other biological specimens. The pressurized cabin contained twelve mice, insects, plants, fungi, cultures, seeds of corn, wheat, peas, onions, microbes, strips of human skin and other specimens. In addition, there were twenty-eight mice and two white rats outside the ejection seat, but within the descent apparatus.
Two internal TV cameras provided views of the dogs during the spaceflight. The spacecraft itself was fully equipped with a functioning catapult, a life support system, and parachutes. Its total mass in orbit was about 4, kilograms. Upon successfully entering orbit, the spacecraft was named the "Second Korabl-Sputnik".
Throughout the one-day mission, doctors continuously monitored the medical condition of the dogs while various parameters of the life support system were given a rigorous workout. The biomedical support group was able to observe the reactions of the dogs while in flight.
The pictures coming back were not encouraging: Later, they became more animated, but their movements seemed convulsive. Belka squirmed and finally vomited on the fourth orbit. A number of scientific experiments were carried out during the mission, including those for the detection of cosmic rays and the monitoring of high-energy emissions in the ultraviolet and x-ray wave lengths. Telemetry showed that the infrared orientation system had failed as with Korabl-Sputnik 1.
Engineers recommended using the backup solar orientation system. The latter performed without any anomalies on the spacecraft's eighteenth orbit, and the descent apparatus successfully entered Earth's atmosphere at the correct angle. The catapult system operated on schedule and ejected the cabin with the dogs in the mock-up of the ejection seat.
The cabin landed safely by parachute only ten kilometers from the designated point of touchdown in the Orsk region in Kazakhstan after a one-day, two-hour spaceflight. Belka and Strelka thus became the first living beings recovered from orbit. The spacecraft itself was only the third object retrieved from orbit. Doctors found both dogs in good condition despite the concerns during the mission.
Extensive physiological tests proved that there had been no fundamental changes in their health. This flight verified almost all the primary elements of the spacecraft design. A nearly successful Discoverer mission but, finally, another failure. Discoverer XV placed into polar orbit. On 14 September, recovery capsule of Discoverer XV located from aircraft, but bad weather prevented surface pickup before it sank. Discoverer 15 was a kg low-resolution, military surveillance satellite. The recovery capsule was ejected, but it felt into the ocean and retrieval was not possible due to inclement weather conditions.
The Agena stage reentered the atmosphere and burned up on 17 October The probe was 1 metre diamete and weighed Although the first stage performed without problems during the launch, the Able second stage ignited abnormally and shut down early because of an oxidizer system failure.
Courier I-B active communications satellite successfully placed into orbit by Thor-Able-Star launch vehicle.
After completing one orbit, it received and recorded a transcribed message to the United Nations by President Eisenhower, transmitted from Fort Monmouth, N. Courier I-B stopped transmitting on 23 October, but radio tracking beacon continued to function. In 18 days, it had transmitted million words. Courier was part of NOTUS for developing a communications system utilizing satellites to provide long-range radio communications links, was reoriented to emphasize two programs: Courier demonstrated the feasibility of a delayed repeater satellite to relieve crowded point-to-point communications when the Courier IB satellite was successfully launched in October.
Vast quantities of information were relayed between the ground stations at Puerto Rico and New Jersey. The Mars attempts as reported by the Soviet Space Program, published in The United States in a number of instances has been able to monitor such failures, but on only one occasion has disclosed this knowledge officially on September 5, From their subsequent repetitive use of an orbital launch platform technique for planetary and other missions remote from low Earth orbit, we can imagine how the operation was intended to proceed.
Premier Khrushchev timed his arrival in New York at the United Nations accordingly, expecting to be able to announce the flights. A seaman defector from the Soviet ship Baltika, which had brought Khrushchev told reporters that onboard the ship was a replica of an advanced spacecraft which was to be put on display if a certain mission were successful. If true, the replica was carried back to the Soviet Union unseen. The Mars flyby was planned for 13 May The kg spacecraft initially included a TV imaging system and a spectro-reflectometer to detect organic life on Mars , but mass constraints forced engineers to remove both instruments a week before launch.
During the launch, violent vibrations caused a gyroscope to malfunction. As a result, the booster began to veer from its planned attitude, the guidance system failing at seconds, and the third-stage engine was shut down after the trajectory deviated to a pitch of greater than 7 degrees. General Assembly meeting In New York. Rumored space spectacular did not apparently take place. Samos I was launched, however, due to equipment malfunction during launch, orbit was not attained.
Samos I was a cylinder, 6. It was probably a Program flight and carried the E-1 camera Component Test Payload and F-1 ferret research and development test payload.
The Atlas guidance system failed but the Atlas flew successfully. However, at launch an Agena umbilical failed to separate cleanly and the nitrogen attitude control gas leaked out, so that Agena could not be stabilized after separation and fired in the wrong direction. It tested visual surveillance real time radio readout of scanned photographs , film recovery and ferret electronic intelligence.
E-1 was a component test payload. Some documents indicate that the F-1 was a separate payload, possibly a subsatellite, but it seems more likely that it remained attached to the Agena.
Three Program satellites were built and two were launched. During the launch trajectory, there was a failure in the third-stage engine seconds into the launch as a result of frozen kerosene in the pipeline feeding its turbopump which prevented a valve from opening.
The Mars flyby had been planned for 15 May The tragedy was first heard of in the West in the s and since it had happened during a period favorable to launch Mars probes, it was considered a major blow to the Soviet space program. It was only in the s that the full account was revealed and the fact that it had nothing to do with Mars exploration. Here what had happened. Numerous important officials were at Baykonur to witness the first launch of the R ICBM which, when it will become operational, will finally give the Soviet Union an active and large-scale strategic deterrent against the United States.
Since the R was fueled by storable hypergolic and highly toxic propellants, there had been much difficulty prior to launch, especially in fueling procedures, which caused great consternation at the site. The first launch was originally set for October 23, but a major propellant leak that evening forced a postponement to the next day. On the orders of the State Commission, all repairs to the missile were carried out in a fully fueled state, creating a remarkably dangerous situation at the pad.
The repairs were successfully completed through the night, and all prelaunch operations proceeded as planned, until thirty minutes prior to the set launch time on October At this point, there were still approximately officers, engineers and soldiers near the pad, including Marshal Nedelin, the Strategic Missile Forces Commander-in-Chief, who scoffed at suggestions that he leave the pad area.
Am I not an officer? But suddenly, the missile exploded on the pad, releasing an expanding inferno of destruction around the pad area. Within seconds, the rocket broke in half and fell on the pad, crushing any one who might have still been left alive. At that point, the fire and the heat increased in intensity as all the propellants ignited in a crescendo. Some people were simply engulfed in the fire, while others who managed to run in a burning state succumbed to the toxic gases withing minutes.
Technicians remained hanging from their harness from special cranes as their bodies burned. As the temperature raged to around 3, degrees, people just simply melted in the firestorm, many being reduced to ashes, Nedelin himself was identified only by his Gold Star medal attached to his uniform.
All told, individuals died in the blast, including senior military officials, deputy chief designers and numerous soldiers.
The entire incident was kept under tight wraps, and Marshal Nedelin was said to have died in an aircraft accident, a piece of fiction that the Soviets officially maintained until early Investigation revealed that the failure had occurred when the second stage of the R had spuriously started firing on the pad because of a control system failure, thus igniting the propellants in the first stage.
Discoverer XVI successfully launched with new payload, but failed to go into polar orbit. Gunter 's KH-2 Corona ;. Explorer VIII launched into an elliptical orbit for detailed measurements of the ionosphere. This was the 10th time that JPL-developed upper stage rocket clusters had successfully placed satellites or deep space probes auto orbit. The satellite has also two secondary objectives: Read more about CC. Read more about CPO. Read more about TLC. Read more about SD. Read more about AIM.
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