The presentation of self in everyday life. Leaving aside the intersectionality 23 of race and gender, her being behind him nearly the entire time normalizes the idea that men are naturally faster than women. Or only on training days. Learn what the Precision Nutrition Method can do for the people who come to you for advice. These included links to product information, sponsored athletes, teams, events, and research. Eating right not only helps you feel and look good, but it also provides energy to carry you through any challenging race, training or work day.
Back to the basics advice from the top sports nutritionists on the block.
The female athlete, however, only makes it onscreen for 4. Women and men are shown in equal numbers four each , with female athletes represented by a runner, a tennis player, and two soccer players. Athletes appear onscreen for 59 seconds of the second ad. However, women were at times portrayed in ways that reinforced male dominance in sport, as when two runners, a black female and a white male, are shown running together in the PowerBar ad, the only instance of women and men training together in either sample.
The female athlete, however, is shown running behind the male for The split second in which she is shown leading him is so brief both coders missed it in real time, only discovering it in later frame-by-frame analysis. Leaving aside the intersectionality 23 of race and gender, her being behind him nearly the entire time normalizes the idea that men are naturally faster than women.
None of the women of sports nutrition were shown in passive poses, as fashion models might be 36, Instead, they were actively training, competing, and sweating like the men who appeared in the same commercials, presenting a view of relative gender equality. The two genders, however, rarely inhabited the screen at the same time, reflecting gender segregation in the non-virtual world in which men and women are often spatially separated when they perform the same tasks The other 29 athletes are shown engaged in competition, wearing uniforms and playing in front of enthusiastic crowds.
In contrast, Williams is depicted practicing her serve, alone, in an empty stadium wearing leggings and a tank top. Cutting between the two presents a stark contrast between someone practicing at being an athlete and those who have already made the cut. Three other aspects of visual grammar are germane to this discussion. Sports nutrition advertising very much offers up images of athletes for us to gaze upon.
The athletes do not look directly at us, but are most often competing or training, their gazes directed at the action on the field or offscreen, while we watch them play.
A second relevant aspect of visual grammar is the relationship between power and the visual angle. If the view is from a high angle, meaning we are gazing down on the action, then we, the viewer, are in a position of power relative to the represented In nearly all of the commercials in the sample, the reverse was true.
A third grammatical device employed here was the absence of voice for athletes, replaced by the off-screen voiceover of an anonymous, older, white male. This device was observed on websites in the use of a disembodied voice of science providing product information with no identifiable author or source The anonymous nature of the voiceovers only adds to their symbolic position of power over both the athlete and the viewer.
Seventeen of the 20 commercials in the sample featured white, male voiceovers, while none of the Gatorade spots and only three of the Powerade commercials used the device in the sample, suggesting it was no longer successful. Soundtracks employing popular music were most often the choice instead. The bars came in bright yellow wrappers with a hot pink logo that simultaneously suggested a woman and a butterfly.
The events awarded finishers medals in the shape of the logo bedazzled in magenta glitter, and the bibs runners wore were similarly festooned with pink flowery swirls. For comparison, the product marketed to men produced by the same company, PowerBar, featured a male runner sprinting across a mountain ridge, sweating, shirt and hair whipping in the wind. The language used to describe LUNA bars was also unusual in that there were virtually no references to improved athletic performance.
Instead, the label read:. Food feeds our souls, lifts our spirits, nourishes and sustains us. So, why does finding the right thing to eat sometimes seem so complicated?
Contrast this with verbiage for PowerBar Energy Gels, a product targeted at competitive endurance athletes, including cyclists like those pictured on the LUNA site:. Sodium is the key electrolyte lost in sweat and is the only electrolyte recommended to be replaced during endurance exercise.
PowerBar Energy gels contain mg sodium — a key electrolyte lost in sweat that is associated with muscle cramping in some athletes. There is little overlap between them. The first maps onto research showing women not only buy products based on use-related aspects, but because they symbolize emotional attachment and interpersonal relations 26, Reflecting evidence that traditional femininity is no longer popular in modern western cultures 35 , product marketing in the sample moved towards androgynous, and at times masculine, representations of female athletes.
Androgyny It was pointed out over two decades ago 50 that in order for women to become involved in a wider variety of athletic activities, sport needed to be coded as neither male, nor female, meaning its behavior and artifacts must be largely gender neutral. This is occurring to a greater degree in sports nutrition marketing for products aimed at endurance athletes. These brands lack the television advertising budgets of Gatorade and Powerade, meaning this quiet revolution is taking place largely online.
In the case of the track cyclists on the Bonk Breaker site, both genders although never shown cycling together are wearing sunglasses and aerodynamic helmets that obscure facial features and hairstyles. They also wear nearly identical tight fitting cycling apparel in similar colors and are engaged in cycling competition. Part of what allows for such gender-neutral representations is arguably the sports themselves, as well as the context in which the athletes are portrayed.
Competitive cycling requires equipment and clothing that does not vary much between genders, as is the case with triathlon and running.
Contrast this with figure skating, where costumes are highly stylized and gender specific, or beach volleyball, where female Olympians wear bikinis. Level of competition may also neutralize gender associations for these sports, especially with regard to clothing. Competitors at the elite level in cycling wear either the colors of their team sponsor s or of their country, depending on the event, overriding gender associations with any particular color.
Thus, Hammer, Bausch, and Reed are dressed in red, white, and blue, the colors of the U. Olympic team, rather than the pink or blue associated with gender differentiation in contemporary American culture One of the Boys? Given that soccer is more often associated with women in the U. Only female athletes are shown, an anomaly in the sample. She was also allowed to speak for herself throughout the commercial, also highly unusual in the sample. The commercial stands out in terms of representation in that it provided viewers an image of a successful female athlete competing aggressively, not sexualized, not being outnumbered by male athletes, or given less time onscreen.
The second commercial begins with an actress portraying Shields as a little girl sitting on a porch punching birthday balloons.
It then cuts to the adult Shields training alone with a speed bag in a boxing gym. She is only on view from the waist up, heavily muscled, punching the bag, sweating, wearing a tank top and no make up, with her hair pulled back, all signaling that she is to be taken seriously as an athlete.
Shields appears onscreen for eight seconds, during which an older, white, male voice asks us,. It does so, however, using a white, male voice of authority, rather than allowing Shields to speak for herself. It also refers to Shields, the only boxer in U. Shields was the most competitively successful of the three athletes chosen for this series, and she was competing in a gender atypical sport 8 , providing Powerade the opportunity to break new ground, which it did to a degree with the explicitly feminist content of its voiceover.
The dunk was also easily recognizable and reproducible in the small sizes necessary for use on mobile phones. Interestingly, Williams was not photographed in tennis clothing, but with her hair pinned up, wearing a baggy flannel shirt, suggesting her fame was sufficient to identify her as an athlete.
Her filter, however, was confined to the small screens of mobile phones, rather than the television screens of most Super Bowl advertising, meaning its largest impact was likely exposure to Generation Y, along with its re presentations from user to user, with millions of women and girls creating and sharing photos of themselves as NFL players being dunked, just like Williams.
Repetition and Impact Commercials stand to have a major impact in terms of increasing the visibility of female athletes simply due to their sheer repetition.
Released in December , this commercial aired nationally 7, times as of June , and had been viewed over 9. The latter were two of the most watched sporting events of the year, with 26 million 75 and 9. The commercial features athletes in every frame except for 1. Sixty-eight athletes are pictured in total, 62 males in four sports: The remaining six are female, Serena Williams and five girls portraying a high school soccer team.
The anonymous members of the marching band get nearly as much screen time as Williams. Hence, there is female representation in the most widely viewed sports nutrition advertisement of , but women are still quite marginalized in terms of numbers of athletes and screen time.
In fact, four seconds of screen time shown 7, times adds up to nearly hours of exposure for female athletes they would not have had otherwise, in the very context of male dominated sporting events from which they are typically absent.
The female athletes of sports nutrition are not only visible, but are presented in ways that highlight their athletic ability over their sexuality, increasing their appeal as sporting role models for girls Although the effects of media representation on viewers is the subject of ongoing debate 35,,47 , the high degree of repetitive exposure that female athletes receive in sports nutrition marketing has the potential to further normalize female participation in sport for mass sports audiences.
Although sports fans and athletes are the primary targets of sports nutrition marketing, it would behoove scholars of sports media, especially those advocating for a greater degree and variety of representation for women ,14,18,21,24,, , to take note of the more positive portrayals of female athletes in sports nutrition advertising.
Further, this message is literally repeated thousands of times during televised sports coverage. Millions more viewers are going online to watch these commercials on purpose, simultaneously receiving the message that women and girls belong on the screen and in the game. In some small way, this increased exposure may lead to greater acceptance of women and girls as athletes on and off the field of play.
The media image of the female athlete [Documentary film]. To support a training session or competition athletes need to eat at an appropriate time so that all the food has been absorbed and their glycogen stores are fully replenished. In order to replenish them the athlete needs to consider the speed at which carbohydrate is converted into blood glucose and transported to the muscles.
The rapid replenishment of glycogen stores is important for the track athlete who has a number of races in a meeting. The rise in blood glucose levels is indicated by a food's Glycaemic Index GI - the faster and higher the blood glucose rises the higher the GI. High GI foods take 1 to 2 hours to be absorbed and low GI foods can take 3 to 4 hours to be absorbed. Studies have shown that consuming high GI carbohydrates approximately 1grm per kg body within 2 hours after exercise speeds up the replenishment of glycogen stores and therefore speeds up recovery time.
Glycogen stores will last for approximately 10 to 12 hours when at rest sleeping so this is why breakfast is essential. Eating meals or snacks a day, will help maximise glycogen stores and energy levels, minimise fat storage and stabilise blood glucose and insulin levels.
What you eat on a day-to-day basis is extremely important for training. Your diet will affect how fast and how well you progress, and how soon you reach competitive standard. The page on Nutritional Tips provides some general nutritional advice to help you manage your weight and body fat. Once you are ready to compete, you will have a new concern: What should you eat before your competition? When is the best time to eat? How much should you eat? Should you be eating during the event? In addition, what can you eat between heats or matches?
A lot of research has been done in this area, and it is clear that certain dietary approaches can enhance competition performance. Calculate your daily basic and extra requirements, monitor your daily intake especially your carbohydrates and then adjust your diet to meet your daily requirements. A good balanced diet should provide you with the required nutrients but does needs to be monitored.
The simplest way to monitor the 'energy balance' is to keep a regular check of your weight. Each day have three main meals and two to three snacks.
All meals should contain both carbohydrate and protein - 20 to 30 grams worth of protein with each main meal and 10 to 20 grams with each snack. The amount of carbohydrate will vary greatly, mainly depending on your workload.
However, while this leads to an increase in the ability to oxidise FFA during exercise, it comes with a cost: PDK is a kinase enzyme, and kinases tend to phosphorylate other enzymes.
In this case, PDK phosphorylates pyruvate dehydrogenase PDH , which switches it to its inactive state, or reduces its activity at least. Why is this important? Looking at the biochemical pathway of how we oxidise carbohydrate, we know that:. However, what happens if we periodically restrict carbohydrate around the training sessions themselves?
However it was Hansen et al. This study can be viewed as a proof of concept. The study was set up as follows:. So, how did the group who periodized carbohydrate availability see improved performance and markers of performance? Training with low glycogen availability seems to enhance molecular signalling pathways associated with favourable adaptations to endurance type exercise.
The diagram below taken from Impey et al. But restricting carbohydrate around some sessions enhances the molecular signalling response suggesting a benefit for endurance training.
So what should we do? We periodize some training sessions to be undertaken with low carbohydrate availability. Of the 7 studies using this method , all 7 resulted in greater molecular activity favouring the low-carbohydrate condition. However, only 2 out of the 5 looking at performance demonstrated an increase in performance. Kenyan distance runners, for example, are known to wake up and go for a fasted morning run, and boxers are long known for going for fasted runs in the morning.
While this is undoutedly a cultural thing is these sports, could there be something to it? The findings in this area are a little more equivocal. So while the jury is somewhat out, fasted training is a tool that is easy for athletes to implement and so is an option in cases where there is no risk of detrimental impact. In addition to this, the longer after the last carbohydrate feeding, we typically see a gradual decrease in total carbohydrate oxidation and a linear increase in the appearance of glycerol signifying increased FFA release into the blood from lipolysis.
However, there is a balance which must be met between improving endurance training, maintaining an efficient carbohydrate metabolism pathway, and also maintenance of muscle protein synthesis. Note — All the discussed studies above can be found in this text , and are discussed in much greater detail. There are also some important questions to debate. Or is it likely a combination of both? What they found was that both the high-fat and high-carbohydrate groups had similar gene expression.
Work capacity during exercise is something else which must be taken into consideration. The exercise capacity when in a low-carbohydrate state is diminished, which could potentially compromise high intensity planned training sessions.