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In all other points I agree with: Global Nutrition Targets It may take some planning and time in the kitchen, but eating healthy on a budget is possible. Facilities may be designed as Baby-friendly if they meet the minimum Global Criteria, which includes adherence to the Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding and the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. Kefir can play a big role in helping your body fight this nasty disease. Children who suffer from growth retardation as a result of poor diets or recurrent infections tend to be at greater risk for illness and death. Geneva, World Health Organization,
The Code aims to contribute "to the provision of safe and adequate nutrition for infants, by the protection and promotion of breastfeeding, and by ensuring the proper use of breast-milk substitutes, when these are necessary, on the basis of adequate information and through appropriate marketing and distribution" Article 1.
Improper marketing and promotion of food products that compete with breastfeeding often negatively affect the choice and ability of a mother to breastfeed her infant optimally. The Code was formulated in response to the realization that such marketing resulted in poor infant feeding practices, which negatively affect the growth, health and development of children and are a major cause of mortality in infants and young children. Breastfeeding practices worldwide are not yet optimal, in both developing and developed countries, especially for exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months of age.
In addition to the risks posed by the lack of the protective qualities of breast milk, breast-milk substitutes and feeding bottles are associated with a high risk for contamination that can lead to life-threatening infections in young infants.
Infant formula is not a sterile product, and it may carry germs that can cause fatal illnesses. Artificial feeding is expensive, requires clean water, the ability of the mother or caregiver to read and comply with mixing instructions and a minimum standard of overall household hygiene.
These factors are not present in many households in the world. Frequently asked questions , These indicators provide information on national policies for legal entitlement to maternity protection, including leave from work during pregnancy and after birth, as well breastfeeding entitlements after return to work. Since the International Labour Organization ILO was founded in , international labour standards have been established to provide maternity protection for women workers.
Key elements of maternity protection include: The right to cash benefits during absence for maternity leave is intended to ensure that the woman can maintain herself and her child in proper conditions of health and with a suitable standard of living. The source of benefits is important due to potential discrimination in the labour market if employers have to bear the full costs. The right to continue breastfeeding a child after returning to work is important since duration of leave entitlements generally is shorter than the WHO recommended duration of exclusive and continued breastfeeding.
A composite indicator on maternity protection is included as a policy environment and capacity indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.
It currently uses the ILO classification of compliance with Convention on three key provisions leave duration, remuneration and source of cash benefits , but an alternative method taking into account higher standards as stated in Recommendation as well as breastfeeding entitlements is under development.
The ILO periodically publishes information on the above key indicators, including the assessment of compliance with Convention No. However, an alternative method is under development which may use a scale to indicate the degree of compliance is under development. This method will also take into account higher standards for leave duration and remuneration in Recommendation , as well as breastfeeding entitlements within both the Convention and Recommendation.
Pregnancy and maternity are potentially vulnerable time for working women and their families. Expectant and nursing mothers require special protection to prevent any potential adverse effects for them and their infants. They need adequate time to give birth, to recover from delivery process, and to nurse their children.
At the same time, they also require income security and protection to ensure that they will not suffer from income loss or lose their job because of pregnancy or maternity leave. Such protection not only ensures a woman's equal access and right to employment, it also ensures economic sustainability for the well-being of the family.
Returning to work after maternity leave has been identified as a significant cause for never starting breastfeeding, early cessation of breastfeeding and lack of exclusive breastfeeding. In most low- and middle-income countries, paid maternity leave is limited to formal sector employment or is not always provided in practice. The ILO estimates that more than million women lack economic security around childbirth with adverse effects on the health, nutrition and well-being of mothers and their children.
Maternity cash benefits for workers in the informal economy. Rollins et al Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices?
Database of national labour, social security and related human rights legislation. The legislative data are collected by ILO through periodical reviews of national labour and social security legislation and secondary sources, such as the International Social Security Association and International Network on Leave Policies and Research; as well as consultations with ILO experts in regional and national ILO offices around the world.
The composite indicator on maternity protection included in the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework is currently defined as whether the country has maternity protection laws or regulations in place compliant with the provisions for leave duration, remuneration and source of cash benefits in Convention Documentation for the maternity protection database http: Degree training in nutrition exists.
What does the indicator tell us? This indicator reflects the capacity of a country to train professionals in nutrition in terms of having national higher education institutions offering training in nutrition. This indicator is defined as the existence of higher education institutions offering training in nutrition in the country.
Higher education training institutions include universities and other schools offering graduate and post-graduate degrees in nutrition or dietetics, including public health nutrition, community nutrition, food and nutrition policy, clinical nutrition, nutrition science and epidemiology. Trained nutrition professionals work at facilities including health facilities as well as at population and community levels and may influence nutrition policies, and designing and implementation of nutrition intervention programmes at various levels.
They also play an important role in training of other health and non-health cadres to plan and deliver nutrition interventions in various settings. It is recognized that availability, within a country, of sufficient workforce with appropriate training in nutrition will lead to better outcomes for country-specific nutrition and health concerns.
A competency framework for global public health nutrition workforce development: World Public Health Nutrition Association. Registering as Registered Nutritionist. Building systemic capacity for nutrition: Nutrition is part of medical curricula.
This indicator reflects the inclusion of maternal, infant and young child nutrition in pre-service training of health personnel.
This indicator is defined as the existence of pre-service training in maternal, infant and young child nutrition for health personnel. The survey investigates training in three key areas of maternal, infant and young child nutrition, namely growth monitoring and promotion, breastfeeding and complementary feeding, and management of severe or moderate acute malnutrition.
The first two of these three training topics are relevant for all forms of malnutrition, whereas the third topic only pertains to undernutrition. Training on other topics e. Adequate training of health professionals is essential to ensure that nutrition activities are included in their regular health care activities.
Nutrition counseling training changes physician behavior and improves caregiver knowledge acquisition.
Nutrition Journal ; Trained nutrition professionals density. The focus of the nutrition professional indicator is on individuals trained to pursue a nutrition professional career, described in most countries as dieticians or nutritionists including nutrition scientists, nutritional epidemiologists and public health nutritionists.
These individuals are trained sufficiently in nutrition practice to demonstrate defined competencies and to meet certification or registration requirements of national or global nutrition or dietetics professional organizations.
Dieticians and nutritionists may complete the same training and perform the same functions in some countries but not others. This indicator is defined as the number of trained nutrition professionals per , population in the country in a specified year. Validation of the indicator has shown that it can predict several maternal, infant and young child nutrition outcomes. Global nutrition monitoring framework: Density of nurses and midwi ves. Nurse and midwife density indicates whether nurses and midwifery personnel are available to address the health care needs of a given population.
It is the number of nursing and midwifery personnel and density per 10 population. These personnel include professional nurses, professional midwives, auxiliary nurses, auxiliary midwives, enrolled nurses, enrolled midwives and other personnel, such as dental nurses and primary care nurses. Traditional attendants are not counted here but as community or traditional health workers.
There is no gold standard for a sufficient health workforce to address the health care needs of a given population. It has been estimated, however, that countries with fewer than 25 health-care professionals counting only physicians, nurses and midwives per 10 population fail to achieve adequate coverage rates for selected primary health care interventions that are priorities in the Millennium Development Goals. The World Health Report Working together for health. The World Health Report papers.
G ross domestic product per capita and annual growth rate. GDP per capita purchasing power parity is the GDP divided by the midyear population, where GDP is the total value of goods and services for final use produced by resident producers in an economy, regardless of the allocation to domestic and foreign claims.
It does not include deductions for depreciation of physical capital or depletion and degradation of natural resources. Purchasing power parity indicates the rate of exchange that accounts for price differences across countries, allowing international comparisons of real output and incomes.
Purchasing power parity rates allow standard comparisons of real prices among countries, just as conventional price indexes allow comparisons of real values over time; use of normal exchange rates could result in over - or undervaluation of purchasing power.
GDP per capita annual growth rate is defined as the least squares annual growth rate, calculated from constant price GDP per capita in local currency units. Higher income is usually associated with lower rates of mal nutrition.
Improving income however, reduces mal nutrition to only a small degree World Bank On the basis of the correlation between growth and nutrition , it is estimated that a sustained per capita economic growth of 2. These estimates suggest that countries cannot depend on economic growth alone to reduce mal nutrition within an acceptable time.
Repositioning nutrition as central to development. A strategy for large-scale action , Human solidarity in a divided world , Official development assistance received net disbursements as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product GDP is a measure of the flow of aid, private capital and debt in comparison with the value of goods and services produced within the country. This indicator is official development assistance received as a percentage of the GDP.
Net official development assistance consists of grants or loans to countries or territories from the official sector, with the main objective of promoting economic development and welfare, at concessional financial terms.
GDP is the total value of final goods and services produced within a country's borders in a year, regardless of ownership. When official development assistance makes up a large proportion of the GDP, a country is highly aid dependent, with the risk of unpredictable aid and donor-driven aid programmes. This can affect the resources allocated to nutrition , which are often not a donor priority in the sector-wide aid strategies promoted by the Paris Declaration Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness: This indicator identifies countries with low income and food inadequacy.
A country is classified by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization FAO as 'low-income food-deficit' for analytical purposes on the basis of low income and food inadequacy, and the status is agreed by the country itself. The classification applies to countries that have a per capita income below the ceiling used by the World Bank to determine eligibility for International Development Association assistance and for year terms determined by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, applied to countries included in World Bank categories I and II.
The second criterion is based on the net i. Trade volumes of a broad range of basic foodstuffs cereals, roots and tubers, pulses, oilseeds and oils other than tree crop oils, meat and dairy products are converted and aggregated by the calorie content of individual commodities. The third criterion, which is self-exclusion, is applied when countries that meet the above two criteria specifically request to be excluded from the low-income food-deficit category. In order to avoid too frequent changes of low-income food-deficit status, usually reflecting short-term, exogenous shocks, an additional factor is taken into consideration.
This factor, called 'persistence of position', postpones the 'exit' of a country from the list even if it does not meet the low-income or the food-deficit criterion, until the change in its status is verified for 3 consecutive years. In other words, a country is taken off the list in the fourth year after confirming a sustained improvement in its position.
During these 3 years, the country is considered to be in a transitional phase. The rationale behind the low-income food-deficit classification is that being both food deficit and having a low income at the same time means that the country lacks the resources not only to import food but also to produce sufficient amounts domestically.
It is the combination of these two factors that makes these countries both food insecure and susceptible to domestic and external shocks, which could affect the nutrition al status of vulnerable populations. The low-income food-deficit list is intended to capture this aspect of the food problem. In comparison with countries in other classifications commonly used for analytical and operational purposes, e.
Committee on World Food Security. Rome , June Averaged aggregate governance indicators. The world governance indicators of the World Bank Institute define governance as the traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised.
This includes the process by which governments are selected, monitored and replaced; the capacity of the government to formulate and implement sound policies effectively; and the respect of citizens and the state for the institutions that govern economic and social interactions among them. The world governance indicators measure six broad definitions of governance, capturing the key elements of this definition: The averaged aggregate governance indicators in the NLIS country profile represent the aggregated average of the six world governance indicators.
The indicators represent the views of thousands of stakeholders worldwide, including respondents to household and firm surveys and experts from nongovernmental organizations, public sector agencies and providers of commercial business information.
The NLIS averaged aggregate governance indicators are calculated from the average of the z scores a measure of standard deviations away from the mean of the six world governance indicators. Each of the six indicators are expressed as the standard normal units, ranging from around The higher the score a country has, the better the assessment has it received regarding the six governance elements.
Policy-makers, civil society groups, aid donors and scholars around the world increasingly agree that good governance affects development. This consensus has emerged from a proliferation of empirical measures of institutional quality and governance, the investment climate and research World Bank Institute, For nutrition , the importance of good governance is reflected in the UNICEF conceptual framework of factors in the "control and management of resources influenced by political and ideological structures in society'' Jonsson Good governance is also recognized by countries themselves in the Voluntary Guidelines to support the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security FAO as an essential factor for sustained economic growth, sustainable development, the eradication of poverty and hunger and the realization of all human rights, including the right to adequate food.
Voluntary guidelines to support the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security , Towards an improved strategy for nutrition surveillance. Food and Nutrition Bulletin , United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition. The fifth report on the world nutrition situation: The Worldwide Governance Indicators: Methodology and Analytical Issues September Gender inequality index GII. The Gender Inequality Index is a composite measure reflecting inequality in achievements between women and men in three dimensions: It varies between zero when women and men fare equally and one when men or women fare poorly compared to the other in all dimensions.
The Gender Inequality Index is designed to reveal the extent to which national human development achievements are eroded by gender inequality, and to provide empirical foundations for policy analysis and advocacy efforts.
Low status restricts women's opportunities and freedom, giving them less interaction with others and fewer opportunities for independent behaviour, restricting the transmission of new knowledge and damaging their self-esteem and expression. It is a particularly important determinant of two resources for care: Low status restricts women's capacity to act in their own and their children's best interests.
There is a demonstrated association between women's status and malnutrition in children. Human Development Report Gender and Human Development. Challenges for the 21st century: Gender Parity Index in primary level enrolment.
This indicator of gender equality is also an indicator of Millennium Development Goal 3: The ratio of girls to boys, the gender parity index, in primary education is the ratio of the number of female students enrolled at the primary level of education to the number of male students.
To standardize the effects of the population structure of the appropriate age groups, the gross enrolment ratio for each level of education is used. The gross enrolment ratio is the number of students enrolled in primary, secondary and tertiary education, regardless of age, as a percentage of the population of official school age for the three levels. There is a demonstrated association between women's status and mal nutrition in children. United Nations Statistics Division.
Millennium Development Goals indicators. Promote gender equality and empower women. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by , and in all levels of education no later than The global hunger index is a means of monitoring whether countries are achieving the hunger-related Millennium Development Goals. It can be used for international ranking. The global hunger index captures three dimensions of hunger: Accordingly, the index includes three equally weighted indicators: In order to identify countries that are notably better or worse off with regard to hunger and undernutrition than would be expected from their gross national income per capita, a regression analysis is made of the global hunger index on gross national income per capita.
Countries are ranked on a point scale, with 0 and being the best and worst possible scores, respectively. Hunger is one of the world's major problems and therefore one of its most important challenges.
Hunger and undernourishment form a vicious circle, which is often 'passed on' from generation to generation: The children of impoverished parents are often born underweight and are less resistant to disease; they grow up under conditions that impair their intellectual capacity for the whole of their life.
As of , FAO estimates that 1. This is the highest number since , the earliest year for which comparable statistics are available. The factors that contribute to a high global hunger index are: Countries with high hunger indexes are overwhelmingly low- or low- to middle-income countries with high levels of poverty. Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia are the regions with the highest global hunger indexes and the highest poverty rates.
These have been major causes of widespread poverty and food insecurity in most countries with high global hunger indexes. The 15 countries with the highest global hunger indexes were consistently rated by the 'Freedom House Index' as non-free or partially free with regard to political rights and civil liberties in the period Low women's status is an important contributor to child malnutrition, which in turn accounts for high global hunger indexes for South Asian countries. Well-designed, well-implemented health and nutrition services can reduce child malnutrition substantially.
Many of the countries with high global hunger indexes, especially in South Asia, do not have effective health and nutrition services that reach the most vulnerable age groups pre-pregnancy through 2 years of age. International Food Policy Research Institute. International Food Policy Research Institute, Economic crises - impacts and lessons learned.
Rome, Food and Agriculture of the United Nations, The challenge of hunger Measures being taken to reduce acute undernourishment and chronic hunger.
A global hunger index. The human development index is a summary measure of human development. The human development index is a summary composite measure of a country's average achievements in three basic aspects of human development: It is a measure of the average achievements in a country in three dimensions of human development: The HDI sets a minimum and a maximum for each dimension, called goalposts, and then shows where each country stands in relation to these goalposts, expressed as a value between 0 and 1.
The higher a country's human development, the higher its HDI value. The human development index is used to capture the attention of policy-makers, the media and nongovernmental organizations and to draw it away from the usual economic statistics to focus on human outcomes.
It was created to re-emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth. The human development index is also used to question national policy choices, to determine how two countries with the same level of income per person can have widely different human development outcomes.
For example, two countries may have similar income per person, but the life expectancy and literacy differ greatly, so that one of the countries has a much higher human development index than the other. These contrasts stimulate debate on government policies on health and education, to determine why what is achieved in one country is beyond the reach of the other.
The human development index is also used to highlight differences within countries, between provinces or states, across genders, ethnicity and other socioeconomic groupings. Highlighting internal disparities along these lines has raised national debate in many countries.
The human development index. New Controversies, Old Critiques. Seats held by women in national parliament. This is an indicator of gender equality and empowerment of women and reflects Millennium Development Goal 3, to promote gender equality and empower women.
Women's representation in parliaments is one aspect of their opportunities in political and public life, and it is therefore linked to women's empowerment. The proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments is obtained by dividing the number of parliamentary seats occupied by women by the total number of seats occupied. National parliaments consist of one or two chambers. For international comparisons, generally only the single or lower house is considered in calculating the indicator.
Women are underrepresented in all decision-making bodies and political parties, particularly at the higher echelons. Women still face many practical obstacles to the full exercise of their role in political life. Smith LC, Haddad L. World Health Organization, Interventions by global target.
No increase in childhood overweight. What does this indicator tell us? Anaemia has a wide variety of causes. Other conditions malaria and other infections, genetic disorders, cancer also play a role.
How is it defined? Anaemia is defined as a haemoglobin concentration below a specified cut-off point, which can change according to the age, gender, physiological status, smoking habits and altitude at which the population being assessed lives.
Tests to measure haemoglobin levels are easy to administer. The test could be easily integrated into regular health or prenatal visits or household surveys to capture women of reproductive age, though one needs to consider the cost of the equipment and regular calibration. Anaemia is associated with increased risks for maternal and child mortality. Iron-deficiency anaemia reduces the work capacity of individuals and entire populations, with serious consequences for the economy and national development.
In addition, the negative consequences of iron-deficiency anaemia on the cognitive and physical development of children and on physical performance - particularly the work productivity of adults - are major concerns. Anaemia is a global problem affecting all countries. Resource-poor areas are often more heavily impacted due to the prevalence of infectious diseases.
The main risk factors for iron-deficiency anaemia include a low dietary intake of iron or poor absorption of iron from diets rich in phytates or phenolic compounds. Population groups with greater iron requirements, such as growing children and pregnant women, are particularly at risk. Overall, the most vulnerable, poorest and least educated groups are disproportionately affected by iron-deficiency anaemia. No public health problem. Mild public health problem. Moderate public health problem.
Severe public health problem. Stevens GA et al. Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for Lancet Global Health ; ; 1: Data about haemoglobin and anaemia for women of childbearing age 15—49 years were estimated for each country and for each year between and using survey data obtained from population-representative data sources from countries worldwide.
A Bayesian hierarchical mixture model was used to estimate haemoglobin distributions and systematically addressed missing data, non-linear time trends, and representativeness of data sources. More information on the methodology can be found in: Haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity. Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System. At population level, the proportion of infants with a low birth weight is an indicator of a multifaceted public health problem that includes long-term maternal mal nutrition , ill health and poor health care in pregnancy.
Low birth weight is more common in developing than developed countries. Low birth weight is included as a primary outcome indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. Low birth weight is caused by intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity or both. It contributes to a range of poor health outcomes: Low-birth-weight infants are approximately 20 times more likely to die than heavier infants.
However, data on low birth weight in developing countries is often limited because a significant portion of deliveries are done in homes or small health facilities where cases of infants with low birth weight often go unreported. These cases are not reflected in official figures and may lead to a significant underestimation of low birth weight prevalence. Feto-maternal nutrition and low birth weight. Low birth weight policy brief. The caring practice indicators for infant and young child feeding available on the NLIS country profiles include:.
Early initiation of breastfeeding is defined as the proportion of children born in the past 24 months who were put to the breast within 1 hour of birth. Breastfeeding contributes to saving children's lives, and there is evidence that delayed initiation of breastfeeding increases their risk for mortality. Exclusive breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process, with important implications for the health of mothers.
An expert review of evidence showed that, on a population basis, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is the optimal way of feeding infants. Thereafter, infants should receive complementary foods with continued breastfeeding up to 2 years of age or beyond. Breast milk is the natural first food for infants. It provides all the energy and nutrients that the infant needs for the first months of life.
It continues to provide up to one half or more of a child's nutritional needs during the second half of the first year and up to one third during the second year of life.
Breast milk promotes sensory and cognitive development and protects the infant against infectious and chronic diseases. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant mortality due to common childhood illnesses, such as diarrhoea and pneumonia, and leads to quicker recovery from illness. Breastfeeding contributes to the health and well-being of mothers, by helping to space children, reducing their risks for ovarian and breast cancers and saving family and national resources. It is a secure way of feeding and is safe for the environment.
The indicator is the percentage of infants who start solid, semisolid or soft foods at between 6 and 8 months of age.
WHO recommends starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age. It is defined as the proportion of infants aged months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods. When breast milk alone no longer meets the nutritional needs of the infant, complementary foods should be added. The transition from exclusive breastfeeding to family foods, referred to as 'complementary feeding', typically occurs between 6 and months of age.
This is a very vulnerable period, and it is the time when malnutrition often starts, contributing significantly to the high prevalence of malnutrition among children under 5 worldwide. This indicator is the percentage of children aged months who receive a minimum acceptable diet. A minimum acceptable diet is essential to ensure appropriate growth and development for feeding infants and children aged months.
Without adequate diversity and meal frequency, infants and young children are vulnerable to malnutrition, especially stunting and micronutrient deficiencies, and to increased morbidity and mortality.
Infant and young child feeding list of publications. The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: Children with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy.
This indicator is the prevalence of children with diarrhoea who received oral rehydration therapy. It is the proportion of children aged 0—59 months who had diarrhoea and were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution. The terms used for diarrhoea should cover the expressions used for all forms of diarrhoea, including bloody stools consistent with dysentery and watery stools, and should encompasses mothers' definitions as well as local terms.
Diarrhoeal diseases remain one of the major causes of mortality among children under 5, accounting for 1. As oral rehydration therapy is a critical component of effective management of diarrhoea, monitoring coverage with this highly cost—effective intervention indicates progress on an intermediate outcome indicator of the Global Nutrition Targets, prevalence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age.
Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework: Operational guidance for tracking progress in meeting targets for Moderate and severe thinness, underweight, overweight, obesity. The values for body mass index BMI are age-independent for adult populations and are the same for both genders. BMI may not, however, correspond to the same degree of fatness in different populations due, in part, to different body proportions.
The health risks associated with increasing BMI are continuous, and the interpretation of BMI grading in relation to risk may differ for different populations. Proportions of underweight in women aged years and of overweight in women aged 18 years or more are included as intermediate outcome indicators in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.
BMI is a simple index of weight-to-height commonly used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults. For example, an adult who weighs 58 kg and whose height is 1. Moderate and severe thinness: It has been linked to clear-cut increases in illness in adults studied in three continents and is therefore a further reasonable value to choose as a cut-off point for moderate risk.
The cut-off point of The proportion of the population with a low BMI that is considered a public health problem is closely linked to the resources available for correcting the problem, the stability of the environment and government priorities. In some populations, the metabolic consequences of weight gain start at modest levels of overweight. The costs attributable to obesity are high, not only in terms of premature death and health care but also in terms of disability and a diminished quality of life.
Low prevalence warning sign, monitoring required. Medium prevalence poor situation. High prevalence serious situation. Very high prevalence critical situation. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from to Obesity and other diet related chronic diseases, list of publications.
Halt the rise in diabetes and obesity. Adolescent birth rate per 1, women aged years. The adolescent birth rate, technically known as the age-specific fertility rate provides a basic measure of reproductive health focusing on a vulnerable group of adolescent women. The indicator adolescent birth rate per 1, women aged years is included as an intermediate outcome indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. It is also referred to as the age-specific fertility rate for women aged There is substantial agreement in the literature that women who become pregnant and give birth very early in their reproductive lives are subject to higher risks of complications or even death during pregnancy and birth and their children are also more vulnerable.
This mechanism is called primary production. Other organisms, called heterotrophs , take in autotrophs as food to carry out functions necessary for their life. Thus, heterotrophs — all animals , almost all fungi , as well as most bacteria and protozoa — depend on autotrophs, or primary producers , for the energy and raw materials they need.
Heterotrophs obtain energy by breaking down organic molecules carbohydrates, fats, and proteins obtained in food. Carnivorous organisms rely on autotrophs indirectly, as the nutrients obtained from their heterotroph prey come from autotrophs they have consumed.
Most ecosystems are supported by the autotrophic primary production of plants that capture photons initially released by the sun. Plants convert and store the energy of the photon into the chemical bonds of simple sugars during photosynthesis.
These plant sugars are polymerized for storage as long-chain carbohydrates , including other sugars, starch, and cellulose; glucose is also used to make fats and proteins.
When autotrophs are eaten by heterotrophs , i. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Look up autotroph in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. The New York Times. Retrieved 12 September An Introduction to Plant Biology 4 ed.