Tactix Team

Judson J. Wambold

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Throughout this article, the term "wolf" will be used to refer collectively to naturally occurring subspecies, especially the nominate subspecies, Canis lupus lupus. Again, I was perfectly able to. When food is scarce, this is done at the expense of other family members, especially non-pups. I was benched for the rest of my track season which sucked because I had just been cleared to return to track after a 6-month injury. Scientists reveal how to boost radiotherapy.

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No questions - just wanted to say that we ordered our first map from y'all yesterday, and we LOVE it! Taking disk with pdf file to Kinko's to get large version printed. My boss is bouncing off the walls he's so happy.

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Find info on any U. Calculate the distance between two U. Area Code Database Questions? I appreciate your great customer service and your fine product.

If you are not satisfied with our data, please contact us for a full refund. Our Area Code Database is set of all U. We give you so many fields of data that you can manipulate the data virtually any way you want. It is great for data validation, rate center lookups, line type lookups, etc. In many cases there is no correlation at all and thus should not be relied upon any longer, in our opinion. Redistribution License If you are looking to distribute any part of our data with your product, then the redistribution license is what you need.

Integrates with your applications seamlessly Protects your company from litigation Immediate Download after purchase 1 Year Subscription with Quarterly Updates All subscriptions are not automatically renewed. Generally thru CountyPop Integer Estimated population to nearest This is a very rough estimate based on census data! Note that some NXXs may be subdivided between landline and wireless. This is simply the reported type.

During the permissive dialing period, the old area code map still be displayed in the "NPA" field. If blank, then there is no record yet?

The data will no longer be available. Company VarChar The company name. This is primarily the city name but other Alias Names may be used. Flags VarChar 35 Any flags indicating specific things about this data record. Do you accept purchase orders? What format does the database come in?

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Can I automate the database delivery? How long have you been in business? What separates you from your competitors? What methods of payment do you accept? Back to Top Q. The data is current as of September, Back to Top Q. We are a licensed distributor of the U.

Postal Service ZIP code data We offer more data fields than our competitors at a lower price Unlimited number of users included in all prices Download to as many computers as you like 12 months of updates - we update our data quarterly Immediate download upon purchase We are a U. Department of Energy U. Brands Actual Customer Emails These are actual emails from some of our customers: It is now working great.

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Thanks for a very good product. That is fantastic James: Just what I needed!!!!!!!! Scott Friday, February 06, 5: Dee xxxxxx Thursday, June 11, 5: Thank you very much!! Wednesday, September 30, 1: Sheila Adcock I appreciate the quick turn around on this question. Thanks again, Robert www. My specialist has been on holidays this and that and just waiting to see him is awful. It aches but it isnt a strong aching feeling just that it kinda aches.

And my poop has not been the same since, and with blood in it, which my specialist knows now. So im still really upset that, there really is no ambition anymore to help me. I hope i dont have permanent damage,. Wow, that sounds extremely dangerous. My fiances uncle just died in his early 40s from his appendix rupturing.

I had no clue that this was such a serious complication. He was in pain for a while and like most men, he shrugged it off as him straining a muscle. By then the damage had been done. He also had his stomach pumped from the puss that formed in it. After two weeks of being in the hospital,the worse news comes on Monday, Labor Day just the other day , that our beloved, favorite uncle had passed away.

They beleive he had went into cardiac arrest probably found him when they were doing rounds. I figured that since he made it into the hospital that he would eventually be fine. After reading all the stories, I realize how serious this really is. Wish I knew this before and was able to communicate it to him long before the rupture. Woulda, shoulda, coulda never changed the course of history…. Harlem USA…You will be missed terribly and you are loved!

Wednesday we brought her to the ER due to severe stomach cramps… diagnosis was stomach flu and specifically not appendicitis. From Tuesday until Friday she is laid out on the couch unable move from extreme pain and I have to carry her to the rest room where she can throw up and have diarrhea. It kills me now looking back at what she endured.

So on Friday we take her to a different doctor and just like the other stories on here: IV, CT scan and they find the ruptured appendix. This is my little girl! I just hope all goes well from here on out.

It started first though, with me burping uncontrollably to a point where I was feeling frustrated and tired. Overall it was a scary incident cause the tremendous pain, diagnosis and surgery were all done under 24 hours. It all goes o show how fast things change. So good luck to all, and stay safe. I found this site looking up this problem because my doctor told me after pressing down on that part of my stomach, that if it started hurting esp. Hard to believe you can be taken away from your family suddenly for something that many of us -and certainly i, would have ignored as something else.

I was there for something else but i guess he noticed it was inflamed. My mom and i have decided to go in early tomorrow. Hope i get taken care and everything goes well.

My son is 33yrs old and like most of you suffered with serious stomach pain. He thought the pain was stomach poisoning and treated the simptoms with various over the counter medications.

His CT Scan showed his appendics was intact. When he was finally taken to surgery at After surgery we were informed the appendix had burst. I am reading this blog to find out what we can expect in the days to come. I am so thankful my wonderful son is alive and doing better by the hour. From this point forward I will trust my Lord and Savior that my son will recover and lead a productive full life. Prayers and best wishes to you all. I was taken to the ER and was told I had a blockage in my left kidney.

They put stints in it and performed surgery. Two weeks after all of that with my kidney, I started to feel sick. My stomach got HUGE! I went to the ER again and they asked me if I was pregnant!! They took CT scans and found out my appendix has ruptured 5 days ago and it was encapsulated.

The anti-biotics I was on from my kidney surgery saved me. My appendix is still in me. Should I go to a different doctor for a different opinion or is it safer to keep my appendix in me? Will it rupture again? Thank you and God Bless. I woud say go to a different doctor. I went through the same thing a couple years ago, but mine was ruptured for two weeks and they did have to cut me open. I thought I had the flu.

After a week straight of vomiting I went to a walk in clinic. They said it was the flu and sent me home! The next day I was half dead and had a fever of a hundred and four. Finally, at 6 pm they got me into surgery, saying it would only be an hour to an hour and a half, it ended up being almost four hours. I had an abcess the size of a grapefruit in my abdomen, pertonitis infection of the lining of the stomach , and was septic.

I was in the hospital for eleven days. I had early pnumonia and had to have a tube inserted through my nose to my stomach to get rid of all the nasty infection. The surgeon said its amazing I lived. A lot of people have gone through so much pain, I hope you all are able to figure out your health problems. I was had pain through out my stomach and due to this I didnt just feel pain on my side.

At first i thought it was gas pain or food posioning. I took some tums and tried to go to sleep. Then i started vomiting. The pain would not go away and then increased as the night went on. I vomitted about three times during the day.

I finally could not take the constant annoying pain and woke my husband. I went to the er at 12 midnight.

After being seen and CT scan was done — by this time it was 3: I just had surgery on saturday. I prayed that my appendix didnt rupture because i knew the comlications that would follow. Good news after surgery I asked my husband if it prayer ruptured and he said no. I was so happy. The power of prayer does work. I pray that you all get better soon and have a speedy recovery.

Between Mar and Early Sep the pain got so bad I just wanted to die as the doctors just kept ignoring me as if I was making it up. Mine was inflammed on a friday, burst sunday and I was unaware of this for 5 days..

Consider yourself lucky I Had my belly opened and cleaned.. He was on IV antibiotics 4 days then avelox 3 weeks. Only drained it once.

We have decided not to have an internal appendectomy since appendix likely gone anyway and statistics show non surgical conservative treatment is typically enough in a case such as his where rupture and pockets of abecess occurred. He is 10 weeks since he went into the hospital and no issues. Sometimes he feels some tightness down there but it is very minor and is probably his organs getting back to their normal position after the plastering effect he had with the walled off condition.

I walked around with a burst apendix for a good 2 weeks. Doctors thought i was lying. I was 15 so i didnt really realise how bad it actually was until now. Im only looking into it because of a paper im writting for my uni course. I too had a similar experience when I was 9 years old. All the same pain, misdiagnosed intestinal flu, tubes in my stomach, etc. I had the Last Rites performed over me by a sympathic priest in the Catholic hospital I was in.

I am not Catholic. This was in No cat scans, etc. A year later I had to have repairative surgery for torn stitches in my abdomen from the rotted tissue.

I was really against drs. I told them I had had a kidney infection before and this was nothing like one. A week later, a chiroprater finally took an X-Ray and saw a colon blockage. I had a colonic and began throwing up feces. I was rushed across town to a specialist and was operated on within the hour on a Friday afternoon. I had scar tissue grown around my colon that was blocking it.

If you have had abdomenal surgery and ever, EVER have more pain like mentioned-scream as loud as you can to the drs!! I went to was the same one that had operated on me as a child and I told everyone else of my previous surgery, to no avail.

I owe the successful births all at home-I really, really do not like drs and hospitals of my 5 children to the fact that I have been dilagent in my pursued of natural and alternative medicine and lifestyle. Peach and wellness to you all. I am wondering if you are still around or if anyone is still around who might share some experience on recovery process and time. I dont know if my experience is unique or not, but I had a burst appendix and they did NOT operate.

Instead they hooked me to an IV and gave me loads of antibiotics and sent me home after 3 days with a bunch of prescriptions and told me to call and setup an appointment for next month. They gave me no kind of instructions, such as whether I should go to school the next day, work, drive, anything. Is it typical to leave the hospital with the appendix still intact, on prescription narcotics, and your daily routine goes back to normal the next day?

I too suffered a ruptured appendix in and just now looked it up out of curiosity, and i am shocked to read how severe it is that once ruptured it could be fatal in hours!

Fortunatley mine wa only ruptured for about 8 hours! I was in 7th grade and really hate missing school! But it was a saturday when i started feeling kind of odd i just hurt in my abdomen and just prefered to lay down. Then on sunday i spent the day taking warm baths, throwing up and enduring pain my mom thought was the flu as it was early december and flu season. Then the pain became much worse on monday and i stayed home from school sick.

The earliest they were able to get an appointment was later in the day. Well by the time my appointment came i was no longer in pain but my parents took me in anyway! Well good thing they did at the clinic they took urine sample and various other test and said it was very lokley my appendix had ruptured and i should be taken to a hospital immediatly! So my parents and i rushe to the hospotal and i drank the clear, chalky,nasty substance that is berrium which helps with tje cat scans on the way to the hospital!

While me having motion sickness struggled with the task of drinking the berrium. So by the time we were to the hospital i felt very sick. When i got there i was attached to an iv and given more berrium. I was finally able to go in for the cat scan and sure enough my appensix had rupture and they called in the surrgeon who specified in this for an emergency appendectimy spelling?

I had the 3 small incisions. So for the 1st day i was only allowed to eat ice chips because it had ruptured and i still had extremly high blood counts and they were scared that perhaps their could still be some remains of what had ruptured. After my ice doet i was put on a liquid diet and ecentually eased to solid foods.

Even though my blood counts were still high they released me and i just had to come visit the surgeon at his office lile once or twice a week until my blood counts were to normal, if they were not normal in weeks i would have to go in for a second surgery to remove what remained.

Well in about a week- a week and a half my blopd counts were to normal and i was clear, just in time for christmas! I then was unable to do phyaical activity until january! And my infected incision took a while to heal but other than that have been clear of side effect or complications since! So as many others have said, do not ignor the Pain it only can make it worse.

I have had similar experiences with walking around with a ruptured appendix for possibly a couple weeks before it was finally figured out what was happening. It started with what I thought was an irritable bowel thing on a Friday evening.

Bad stomach cramps and just a lot of bowel movements. Then it moved to really bad diarrhea. By the end of the weekend, I found myself with the worst GI flu I had ever had.

Things got better, for awhile at least. During a CAT scan for something else unrelated to another medical problem I was working through, a mass was found in my pelvis, thought to maybe be cancer.

I was lined up quickly with surgery. These clusters may have been the result of expansion from glacial refugia , an adaptation to local environments, and landscape fragmentation and the killing of wolves in some areas by humans. In , two genetic studies of North American gray wolves found that they formed six ecotypes — genetically and ecologically distinct populations separated from other populations by their different type of habitat.

The studies found that precipitation and mean diurnal temperature range were the most influential variables. It was once thought that dogs and gray wolves did not voluntarily interbreed in the wild, though they can produce fertile wolf-dog offspring.

The gray wolf has interbred extensively with the eastern wolf producing a hybrid population termed Great Lakes boreal wolves. Gray wolf Y-chromosomes have also been found in Texan coyote haplotypes. At six months of age, the hybrids were closely monitored and were shown to display both physical and behavioral characteristics from both species.

The gray wolf is the largest extant member of the Canidae , excepting certain large breeds of domestic dog. Compared to its closest wild cousins the coyote and golden jackal , the gray wolf is larger and heavier, with a broader snout, shorter ears, a shorter torso and longer tail.

The gray wolf usually carries its head at the same level as the back, raising it only when alert. Generally, wolves have a high heart weight of 0. Tibetan gray wolves, which occupy territories up to 3, above sea level , have evolved hearts that withstand the low oxygen levels.

The gray wolf's head is large and heavy, with a wide forehead, strong jaws and a long, blunt muzzle. This force is sufficient to break open most bones. A similar trend was found with the carnassial tooth bite force, but with the extinct dire wolf and gray wolf both measuring , then followed by the African hunting dog , the dhole , and the dingo The gray wolf has very dense and fluffy winter fur, with short underfur and long, coarse guard hairs.

Especially long hairs are on the shoulders, and almost form a crest on the upper part of the neck. The hairs on the cheeks are elongated and form tufts. The ears are covered in short hairs, which strongly project from the fur. Short, elastic and closely adjacent hairs are present on the limbs from the elbows down to the calcaneal tendons. Wolf fur provides better insulation than dog fur, and does not collect ice when warm breath is condensed against it. Older wolves generally have more white hairs in the tip of the tail, along the nose and on the forehead.

The winter fur is retained longest in lactating females, though with some hair loss around their nipples. Coat color ranges from almost pure white through various shades of blond, cream, and ochre to grays, browns, and blacks, [68] with variation in fur color tending to increase in higher latitudes. The gray wolf is a social animal, whose basic social unit consists of a mated pair, accompanied by the pair's adult offspring. In the rare cases where other wolves are adopted, the adoptee is almost invariably an immature animal 1—3 years of age unlikely to compete for breeding rights with the mated pair.

In some cases, a lone wolf is adopted into a pack to replace a deceased breeder. Wolves are highly territorial animals, and generally establish territories far larger than they require to survive in order to assure a steady supply of prey. Territory size depends largely on the amount of prey available and the age of the pack's pups, tending to increase in size in areas with low prey populations [77] or when the pups reach the age of 6 months, thus having the same nutritional needs as adults.

Wolves defend their territories from other packs through a combination of scent marking , direct attacks and howling see Communication. Scent marking is used for territorial advertisement, and involves urination, defecation and ground scratching.

Such markers can last for 2—3 weeks, [78] and are typically placed near rocks, boulders, trees, or the skeletons of large animals. The gray wolf is generally monogamous , [86] with mated pairs usually remaining together for life. Upon the death of one mated wolf, pairs are quickly re-established. Since males often predominate in any given wolf population, unpaired females are a rarity. Such gray wolves are termed " Casanova wolves" and, unlike males from established packs, they do not form pair bonds with the females they mate with.

Some gray wolf packs may have multiple breeding females this way, as is the case in Yellowstone National Park. This might take place if the original parents die or are for some reason separated from them. The age of first breeding in gray wolves depends largely on environmental factors: This is further demonstrated by the fact that captive wolves have been known to breed as soon as they reach 9—10 months, while the youngest recorded breeding wolves in the wild were 2 years old.

Females are capable of producing pups every year, with one litter annually being the average. Unlike the coyote, the gray wolf never reaches reproductive senescence.

The gestation period lasts 62—75 days, with pups usually being born in the summer period. Wolves bear relatively large pups in small litters compared to other canid species. The milk canines erupt after one month. Pups first leave the den after 3 weeks. Mother wolves do not leave the den for the first few weeks, relying on the fathers to provide food for them and their young.

Pups begin to eat solid food at the age of 3—4 weeks. Pups have a fast growth rate during their first four months of life: Actual fights to establish hierarchy usually occur at 5—8 weeks of age. This is in contrast to young foxes and coyotes, which may begin fighting even before the onset of play behavior. Although social animals, single wolves or mated pairs typically have higher success rates in hunting than do large packs, with single wolves having occasionally been observed to kill large prey such as moose , bison and muskoxen unaided.

Because of this, it rarely manages to capture hidden hares or birds, though it can easily follow fresh tracks. The actual killing method varies according to prey species. With large prey, mature wolves usually avoid attacking frontally, instead focusing on the rear and sides of the animal.

Large prey, such as moose, is killed by biting large chunks of flesh from the soft perineum area, causing massive blood loss. With small, mouse -like prey, wolves leap in a high arc and immobilize it with their forepaws. Such instances are common in domestic animals, but rare in the wild. In the wild, surplus killing primarily occurs during late winter or spring, when snow is unusually deep thus impeding the movements of prey [] or during the denning period, when wolves require a ready supply of meat when denbound.

Once prey is brought down, wolves begin to feed excitedly, ripping and tugging at the carcass in all directions, and bolting down large chunks of it. When food is scarce, this is done at the expense of other family members, especially non-pups.

Once the breeding pair has finished eating, the rest of the family tears off pieces of the carcass and transport them to secluded areas where they can eat in peace. Wolves typically commence feeding by consuming the larger internal organs of their prey, such as the heart , liver , lungs and stomach lining.

The kidneys and spleen are eaten once they are exposed, followed by the muscles. The gray wolf's expressive behavior is more complex than that of the coyote and golden jackal, as necessitated by its group living and hunting habits. While less gregarious canids generally possess simple repertoires of visual signals, wolves have more varied signals that subtly inter grade in intensity. Passive submission usually occurs as a reaction to the approach of a dominant animal , and consists of the submissive wolf lying partly on its back and allowing the dominant wolf to sniff its anogenital area.

Active submission occurs often as a form of greeting, and involves the submissive wolf approaching another in a low posture, and licking the other wolf's face. The mouthing of each other's muzzles is a friendly gesture, while clamping on the muzzle with bared teeth is a dominance display. Similar to humans, gray wolves have facial color patterns in which the gaze direction can be easily identified, although this is often not the case in other canid species.

In , a study compared the facial color pattern across 25 canid species. The results suggested that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication, and that especially gray wolves use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.

Gray wolves howl to assemble the pack usually before and after hunts , to pass on an alarm particularly at a den site , to locate each other during a storm or unfamiliar territory and to communicate across great distances.

Pups almost never howl, while yearling wolves produce howls ending in a series of dog-like yelps. The pitch usually remains constant or varies smoothly, and may change direction as many as four or five times. When pursuing prey, they emit a higher pitched howl, vibrating on two notes. When closing in on their prey, they emit a combination of a short bark and a howl. The two are however mutually intelligible , as North American wolves have been recorded to respond to European-style howls made by biologists.

Other vocalisations of wolves are usually divided into three categories: Wolves do not bark as loudly or continuously as dogs do, but bark a few times and retreat from perceived danger.

Pups commonly growl when playing. One variation of the howl is accompanied by a high pitched whine, which precedes a lunging attack. Olfaction is probably the wolf's most acute sense, and plays a fundamental role in communication.

The wolf has a large number of apocrine sweat glands on the face, lips, back, and between the toes. The odor produced by these glands varies according to the individual wolf's microflora and diet, giving each a distinct "odor fingerprint". A combination of apocrine and eccrine sweat glands on the feet allows the wolf to deposit its scent whilst scratching the ground, which usually occurs after urine marking and defecation during the breeding season.

The follicles present on the guard hairs from the wolf's back have clusters of apocrine and sebaceous glands at their bases. As the skin on the back is usually folded, this provides a microclimate for bacterial propagation around the glands. During piloerection, the guard hairs on the back are raised and the skin folds spread, thus releasing scent.

The pre-caudal scent glands may play a role in expressing aggression, as combative wolves raise the base of their tails whilst drooping the tip, thus positioning the scent glands at the highest point. The components of anal sac secretions vary according to season and gender, thus indicating that the secretions provide information related to gender and reproductive state.

The secretions of the preputial glands may advertise hormonal condition or social position, as dominant wolves have been observed to stand over subordinates, apparently presenting the genital area for investigation, [] which may include genital licking. During the breeding season, female wolves secrete substances from the vagina , which communicate the females' reproductive state, and can be detected by males from long distances. Urine marking is the best-studied means of olfactory communication in wolves.

Its exact function is debated, though most researchers agree that its primary purpose is to establish boundaries. Wolves urine mark more frequently and vigorously in unfamiliar areas, or areas of intrusion, where the scent of other wolves or canids is present.

So-called raised leg urination RLU is more common in male wolves than in females, and may serve the purpose of maximizing the possibility of detection by conspecifics, as well as reflect the height of the marking wolf. Only dominant wolves typically use RLU, with subordinate males continuing to use the juvenile standing posture throughout adulthood.

The gray wolf is a habitat generalist, and can occur in deserts , grasslands , forests and arctic tundras. Habitat use by gray wolves is strongly correlated with the abundance of prey, snow conditions, absence or low livestock densities, road densities, human presence and topography. The warmth of the footpads is regulated independently of the rest of the body, and is maintained at just above tissue-freezing point where the pads come in contact with ice and snow.

During the autumn-spring period, when wolves are more active, they willingly lie out in the open, whatever their location. Actual dens are usually constructed for pups during the summer period. When building dens, females make use of natural shelters such as fissures in rocks, cliffs overhanging riverbanks and holes thickly covered by vegetation.

Sometimes, the den is the appropriated burrow of smaller animals such as foxes, badgers or marmots. An appropriated den is often widened and partly remade. On rare occasions, female wolves dig burrows themselves, which are usually small and short with 1—3 openings.

The odour of urine and rotting food emanating from the denning area often attracts scavenging birds such as magpies and ravens. As there are few convenient places for burrows, wolf dens are usually occupied by animals of the same family. Though they mostly avoid areas within human sight, wolves have been known to nest near domiciles , paved roads and railways.

Although wolves primarily feed on medium to large sized ungulates , they are not fussy eaters. Smaller sized animals that may supplement the diet of wolves include marmots , hares , badgers , foxes , weasels , ground squirrels , mice , hamsters , voles and other rodents , as well as insectivores. They frequently eat waterfowl and their eggs.

When such foods are insufficient, they prey on lizards , snakes , frogs , rarely toads and large insects as available. In times of scarcity, wolves readily eat carrion , visiting cattle burial grounds and slaughter houses. In Eurasia, many gray wolf populations are forced to subsist largely on livestock and garbage in areas with dense human activity, though wild ungulates such as moose , red deer , roe deer and wild boar are still the most important food sources in Russia and the more mountainous regions of Eastern Europe.

Other prey species include reindeer , argali , mouflon , wisent , saiga , ibex , chamois , wild goats , fallow deer and musk deer. Animals preferred as prey by North American wolves include moose, white-tailed deer , elk , mule deer , bighorn sheep , Dall's sheep , American bison , muskox and caribou.

Wolves supplement their diet with fruit and vegetable matter. They willingly eat the berries of mountain ash , lily of the valley , bilberries , blueberries and cowberry. Other fruits include nightshade , apples and pears. They readily visit melon fields during the summer months. Gray wolves typically dominate other canid species in areas where they both occur.

In North America, incidents of gray wolves killing coyotes are common, particularly in winter, when coyotes feed on wolf kills. Wolves may attack coyote den sites, digging out and killing their pups, though rarely eating them.

There are no records of coyotes killing wolves, though coyotes may chase wolves if they outnumber them. Brown bears typically dominate wolf packs in disputes over carcasses, while wolf packs mostly prevail against bears when defending their den sites. Both species kill each other's young. Wolves eat the brown bears they kill, while brown bears seem to only eat young wolves.

The majority of black bear encounters with wolves occur in the species' northern range, with no interactions being recorded in Mexico. Wolves have been recorded on numerous occasions to actively seek out black bears in their dens and kill them without eating them. Unlike brown bears, black bears frequently lose against wolves in disputes over kills. Wolves may encounter striped hyenas in Israel, Central Asia and India, usually in disputes over carcasses.

Striped hyenas feed extensively on wolf-killed carcasses in areas where the two species interact. One-to-one, hyenas dominate wolves, and may prey on them, [] but wolf packs can drive off single or outnumbered hyenas. Large wolf populations limit the numbers of small to medium-sized felines. Wolves encounter cougars along portions of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent mountain ranges.

Wolves and cougars typically avoid encountering each other by hunting on different elevations. In winter, however, when snow accumulation forces their prey into valleys, interactions between the two species become more likely. Wolves in packs usually dominate cougars and can steal kills. They have been reported killing mothers and their kittens. Wolves may kill lynxes by running them down, or killing them before they can escape into trees.

Leftovers of wolf kills are sometimes scavenged by wolverines. Wolverines usually wait until the wolves are done feeding, but have been known to drive away wolves from kills.

However, there have been confirmed reports of wolf packs killing wolverines. Other than humans, tigers appear to be the only serious predators of wolves. Wolves appear capable of escaping competitive exclusion from tigers only when human persecution decreases tiger numbers. Proven cases of tigers killing wolves are rare and attacks appear to be competitive rather than predatory in nature, with at least four proven records of tigers killing wolves without consuming them.

However, deliberate human persecution has reduced the species' range to about one third, because of livestock predation and fear of attacks on humans.

Wolf population declines have been arrested since the s, and have fostered recolonization and reintroduction in parts of its former range, due to legal protection, changes in land-use and rural human population shifts to cities. Competition with humans for livestock and game species, concerns over the danger posed by wolves to people, and habitat fragmentation pose a continued threat to the species. Despite these threats, because of the gray wolf's relatively widespread range and stable population, it is classified as least concern by the IUCN.

Although wolf-dog hybridization in Europe has raised concern among conservation groups fearing for the gray wolf's purity, genetic tests show that introgression of dog genes into European gray wolf populations does not pose a significant threat.

Also, as wolf and dog mating seasons do not fully coincide, the likelihood of wild wolves and dogs mating and producing surviving offspring is small. The extermination of Northern Europe 's wolves first became an organized effort during the Middle Ages , and continued until the late 19th century. In England , wolf persecution was enforced by legislation , and the last wolf was killed in the early sixteenth century during the reign of Henry VII. Wolves lasted longer in Scotland , where they sheltered in vast tracts of forest, which were subsequently burned down.

Wolves managed to survive in the forests of Braemar and Sutherland until The extirpation of wolves in Ireland followed a similar course, with the last wolf believed to have been killed in The Sami extirpated wolves in northern Sweden in organized drives.

By , few wolves remained in Sweden, because of the use of snowmobiles in hunting them, with the last specimen being killed in The gray wolf was exterminated in Denmark in and Norway's last wolf was killed in The species was decimated in 20th century Finland, despite regular dispersals from Russia. The gray wolf was only present in the eastern and northern parts of Finland by , though its numbers increased after World War II. In Central Europe , wolves were dramatically reduced in number during the early nineteenth century, because of organized hunts and reductions in ungulate populations.

In Bavaria , the last wolf was killed in , and had disappeared from the Rhine regions by Today, wolves have returned to the area. The louveterie was abolished after the French Revolution in , but was re-established in In , up to 1, wolves were killed, with many more by poison.

In Eastern Europe , wolves were never fully exterminated, because of the area's contiguity with Asia and its large forested areas. However, Eastern European wolf populations were reduced to very low numbers by the late nineteenth century.

Wolves were extirpated in Slovakia during the first decade of the twentieth century and, by the mid-twentieth century, could only be found in a few forested areas in eastern Poland. Wolves in the eastern Balkans benefitted from the region's contiguity with the former Soviet Union and large areas of plains, mountains and farmlands.

Wolves in Hungary occurred in only half the country around the start of the 20th century, and were largely restricted to the Carpathian Basin.

Wolf populations in Romania remained largely substantial, with an average of 2, wolves being killed annually out of a population of 4, from — An all-time low was reached in , when the population was reduced to 1, animals. The extermination of wolves in Bulgaria was relatively recent, as a previous population of about 1, animals in was reduced to about — in In Greece, the species disappeared from the southern Peloponnese in Despite periods of intense hunting during the eighteenth century, wolves never disappeared in the western Balkans, from Albania to the former Yugoslavia.

In Southern Europe , wolf extermination was not as complete as in Northern Europe, because of greater cultural tolerance of the species.

Wolf populations only began declining in the Iberian Peninsula in the early 19th-century, and was reduced by a half of its original size by Wolf bounties were regularly paid in Italy as late as The recovery of European wolf populations began after the s, when traditional pastoral and rural economies declined and thus removed the need to heavily persecute wolves.

By the s, small and isolated wolf populations expanded in the wake of decreased human density in rural areas and the recovery of wild prey populations. The gray wolf has been fully protected in Italy since , and now holds a population of over 1,,

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