Description of the digestive system
Learn more about Amazon Giveaway. Take quizzes and exams. At this stage, the vital organs have failed and the shock can no longer be reversed. The arteriole is the most important site for vasoconstriction. See all other plans See the Teacher's Edition. Erythrocytes transport oxygen in the blood through the red pigment hemoglobin. Your body cells need oxygen to do their jobs.
There are lots of muscles all over your body — in your arms, in your legs, in your back, even in your behind. But the heart muscle is special because of what it does. The heart sends blood around your body.
The blood provides your body with the oxygen and nutrients it needs. It also carries away waste. Your heart is sort of like a pump, or two pumps in one.
The right side of your heart receives blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs. The left side of the heart does the exact opposite: It receives blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the body. How does the heart beat? Before each beat, your heart fills with blood. Then its muscle contracts to squirt the blood along. When the heart contracts, it squeezes — try squeezing your hand into a fist.
That's sort of like what your heart does so it can squirt out the blood. Your heart does this all day and all night, all the time. The heart is one hard worker! The heart is made up of four different blood-filled areas, and each of these areas is called a chamber. There are two chambers on each side of the heart. One chamber is on the top and one chamber is on the bottom. The two chambers on top are called the atria say: If you're talking only about one, call it an atrium.
The atria are the chambers that fill with the blood returning to the heart from the body and lungs. The heart has a left atrium and a right atrium. The two chambers on the bottom are called the ventricles say: The heart has a left ventricle and a right ventricle. Their job is to squirt out the blood to the body and lungs. Running down the middle of the heart is a thick wall of muscle called the septum say: The septum's job is to separate the left side and the right side of the heart.
The atria and ventricles work as a team — the atria fill with blood, then dump it into the ventricles. The ventricles then squeeze, pumping blood out of the heart. While the ventricles are squeezing, the atria refill and get ready for the next contraction. So when the blood gets pumped, how does it know which way to go?
Well, your blood relies on four special valves inside the heart. A valve lets something in and keeps it there by closing — think of walking through a door. The door shuts behind you and keeps you from going backward. Two of the heart valves are the mitral say: MY-trul valve and the tricuspid say: They let blood flow from the atria to the ventricles.
The other two are called the aortic say: PUL-muh-ner-ee valve , and they're in charge of controlling the flow as the blood leaves the heart. These valves all work to keep the blood flowing forward. They open up to let the blood move ahead, then they close quickly to keep the blood from flowing backward. You probably guessed that the blood just doesn't slosh around your body once it leaves the heart. It moves through many tubes called arteries and veins , which together are called blood vessels.
These blood vessels are attached to the heart. The blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called arteries.
The first change seen in shock is an increased cardiac output followed by a decrease in mixed venous oxygen saturation SmvO2 as measured in the pulmonary artery via a pulmonary artery catheter. Central venous oxygen saturation ScvO2 as measured via a central line correlates well with SmvO2 and are easier to acquire. If shock progresses anaerobic metabolism will begin to occur with an increased blood lactic acid as the result.
While many laboratory tests are typically performed there is no test that either makes or excludes the diagnosis. A chest X-ray or emergency department ultrasound may be useful to determine volume state. The best evidence exists for the treatment of septic shock in adults and as the pathophysiology appears similar in children and other types of shock treatment this has been extrapolated to these areas.
Oxygen supplementation, intravenous fluids, passive leg raising not Trendelenburg position should be started and blood transfusions added if blood loss is severe.
Aggressive intravenous fluids are recommended in most types of shock e. For those with haemorrhagic shock the current evidence supports limiting the use of fluids for penetrating thorax and abdominal injuries allowing mild hypotension to persist known as permissive hypotension.
Vasopressors may be used if blood pressure does not improve with fluids. There is no evidence of substantial superiority of one vasopressor over another; however, using dopamine leads to an increased risk of arrythmia when compared with norepinephrine. The goal of treatment is to achieve a urine output of greater than 0. In trauma the goal is to stop the bleeding which in many cases requires surgical interventions.
The prognosis of shock depends on the underlying cause and the nature and extent of concurrent problems. Hypovolemic, anaphylactic and neurogenic shock are readily treatable and respond well to medical therapy. In Hinshaw and Cox suggested the classification system for shock which is still used today. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the psychological condition, see Acute stress reaction. American College of Surgeons. Circulatory Shock and Physiology of Its Treatment".
Textbook of Medical Physiology 11th ed. Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis" PDF. Robbins Basic Pathology 8th ed. Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice. Emergency medicine clinics of North America.
Amer College of Surgeons. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2: Advances In Fluid Management". Archived from the original on The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Current Opinion in Critical Care. New England Journal of Medicine. Health science Medicine Medical specialities Respiratory therapy. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Oxygen toxicity Refeeding syndrome Ventilator-associated lung injury Ventilator-associated pneumonia Dialytrauma.
Arterial blood gas Catheter Arterial line Central venous catheter Pulmonary artery catheter Blood cultures Screening cultures.
Airway management Chest tube Dialysis Enteral feeding Goal-directed therapy Induced coma Mechanical ventilation Therapeutic hypothermia Total parenteral nutrition Tracheal intubation.
Hemodynamics Hypotension Level of consciousness Acid—base imbalance Water-electrolyte imbalance. Symptoms and signs relating to the cardiovascular system R00—R03 , Referred pain Angina Aerophagia. Tachycardia Bradycardia Pulsus tardus et parvus Pulsus paradoxus doubled Pulsus bisferiens Dicrotic pulse Pulsus bigeminus Pulsus alternans Pulse deficit.
Based on symptoms, physical exam , laboratory tests . Based on the underlying cause .