Pancreas and Spleen

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Abdominal ultrasound

When released into the duodenum, they are activated by the enzyme enteropeptidase present in the lining of the duodenum. The proenzymes are cleaved, creating a cascade of activating enzymes: The free trypsin then cleaves the rest of the trypsinogen, as well as chymotrypsinogen to its active form chymotrypsin.

The pancreas secretes substances which help in the digestion of starch and other carbohydrates, proteins and fats. The enzyme involved in the digestion of fats is lipase. Amylase, also secreted by the pancreas, breaks down starch amylum and other carbohydrates. The pancreas also secretes phospholipase A2 , lysophospholipase , and cholesterol esterase. Similar to the salivary glands , most of the pancreas specific genes encode for secreted proteins. Corresponding pancreas specific proteins are either expressed in the exocrine cellular compartment and have functions related to digestion of food uptake such as digestive chymotrypsinogen enzymes and pancreatic lipase PNLIP , or expressed in the various cells of the endocrine pancreatic islets and have functions related to secreted hormones such as insulin , glucagon , somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide.

A perforation of the pancreas, which may lead to the secretion of digestive enzymes such as lipase and amylase into the abdominal cavity as well as subsequent pancreatic self-digestion and digestion and damage to organs within the abdomen, generally requires prompt and experienced medical intervention.

It is possible for one to live without a pancreas, provided that the person takes insulin for proper regulation of blood glucose concentration and pancreatic enzyme supplements to aid digestion. Inflammation of the pancreas is known as pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is most often associated with recurrent gallstones or chronic alcohol use, although a variety of other causes, including measles , mumps , some medications, the congenital condition alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and even some scorpion stings, may cause pancreatitis.

Pancreatitis is likely to cause intense pain in the central abdomen , that often radiates to the back, and may be associated with jaundice. In addition, due to causing problems with fat digestion and bilirubin excretion, pancreatitis often presents with pale stools and dark urine. In pancreatitis, enzymes of the exocrine pancreas damage the structure and tissue of the pancreas. Detection of some of these enzymes, such as amylase and lipase in the blood, along with symptoms and findings on x-ray , are often used to indicate that a person has pancreatitis.

A person with pancreatitis is also at risk of shock. Pancreatitis is often managed medically with analgesics , removal of gallstones or treatment of other causes, and monitoring to ensure a patient does not develop shock. Pancreatic cancers , particularly the most common type, pancreatic adenocarcinoma , remain very difficult to treat, and are mostly diagnosed only at a stage that is too late for surgery, which is the only curative treatment.

Pancreatic cancer is rare in those younger than 40, and the median age of diagnosis is There are several types of pancreatic cancer, involving both the endocrine and exocrine tissue. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which affects the exocrine part of the pancreas, is by far the most common form.

The many types of pancreatic endocrine tumors are all uncommon or rare, and have varied outlooks. However the incidence of these cancers has been rising sharply; it is not clear to what extent this reflects increased detection, especially through medical imaging , of tumors that would be very slow to develop.

Insulinomas largely benign and gastrinomas are the most common types. A solid pseudopapillary tumour is a low-grade malignant tumour of the pancreas of papillary architecture that typically afflicts young women. Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas.

Insulin is needed to keep blood sugar levels within optimal ranges, and its lack can lead to high blood sugar. As an untreated chronic condition, diabetic neuropathy can result. Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age but is most often diagnosed before adulthood. For people living with type 1 diabetes, insulin injections are critical for survival.

An experimental procedure to treat type 1 diabetes is the transplantation of pancreatic islet cells from a donor into the patient's liver so that the cells can produce the deficient insulin. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is the most common form of diabetes. The causes for high blood sugar in this form of diabetes usually are a combination of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion, with both genetic and environmental factors playing an important role in the development of the disease.

The management of type 2 diabetes relies on a series of changes in diet and physical activity with the purpose of reducing blood sugar levels to normal ranges and increasing insulin sensitivity. The pancreas was first identified by Herophilus — BC , a Greek anatomist and surgeon.

It was only in when Oskar Minkowski discovered that removing the pancreas from a dog caused it to become diabetic insulin was later discovered by Frederick Banting and Charles Herbert Best in Pancreatic tissue is present in all vertebrates , but its precise form and arrangement varies widely.

There may be up to three separate pancreases, two of which arise from ventral buds, and the other dorsally. In most species including humans , these fuse in the adult, but there are several exceptions. Even when a single pancreas is present, two or three pancreatic ducts may persist, each draining separately into the duodenum or equivalent part of the foregut.

Birds , for example, typically have three such ducts. In teleosts , and a few other species such as rabbits , there is no discrete pancreas at all, with pancreatic tissue being distributed diffusely across the mesentery and even within other nearby organs, such as the liver or spleen.

In a few teleost species, the endocrine tissue has fused to form a distinct gland within the abdominal cavity, but otherwise it is distributed among the exocrine components. The most primitive arrangement, however, appears to be that of lampreys and lungfish , in which pancreatic tissue is found as a number of discrete nodules within the wall of the gut itself, with the exocrine portions being little different from other glandular structures of the intestine.

The pancreas of calf ris de veau and lamb ris d'agneau , and, less commonly, of beef and pork , are used as food under the culinary name of sweetbread. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Pancreas disambiguation. Head of pancreas 2: Uncinate process of pancreas 3: Body of pancreas 5: Anterior surface of pancreas 6: Inferior surface of pancreas 7: Superior margin of pancreas 8: Anterior margin of pancreas 9: Inferior margin of pancreas Tail of pancreas This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see Anatomical terminology.

Diabetes mellitus type 1. Diabetes mellitus type 2. Explicit use of et al. Retrieved 5 January Retrieved 5 November Mitchell; illustrations by Richard; Richardson, Paul Gray's anatomy for students. Institution for Anatomy, Uppsala.

Larsen's human embryology 4th ed. Human embryology and developmental biology. Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology 12th ed. Davidson's principles and practice of medicine. Illustrated by Robert Britton 21st ed. Retrieved 8 June A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. Current treatment options in oncology. World Cancer Report Archived from the original PDF on Williams Textbook of Endocrinology 12th ed. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 18th ed.

History of the Pancreas: Mysteries of a Hidden Organ. A2Z Book of word Origins. The Greek and Latin Roots of English. Anatomy of the liver, pancreas and biliary tree. Retrieved from " https: Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Pancreas. The coordinated action of the forementioned hormones results in the secretion of a large volume of the pancreatic juice, which is alkaline and enzyme-rich, into duodenum.

The pancreas also receives autonomic innervation. The blood flow into pancreas is regulated by sympathetic nerve fibers, while parasympathetic neurons stimulate the activity of acinar and centroacinar cells. Pancreatic secretion is an aqueous solution of bicarbonate originating from the duct cells and enzymes originating from the acinar cells. The bicarbonate assists in neutralising the low pH of the chyme coming from the stomach, while the enzymes assist in the breakdown of the proteins, lipids and carbohydrates for further processing and absorption in the intestines.

Pancreatic juice is secreted into the duodenum through duodenal papillae. Some individuals have also an accessory duct, named accessory pancreatic duct, which may be functional that is, it also empties the contents of the exocine pancreas into the duodenum or non-functional.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Journal of Physiology. Physiology of the gastrointestinal system. Submucous plexus Myenteric plexus. Segmentation contractions Migrating motor complex Borborygmus Defecation.

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