Side Effects & Safety
If symptomatic, or; for indefinite period from date of hospital admission for surgical correction Chronic hilar adenopathy or stable lung infiltrates without symptoms or physiologic impairment Prosthesis worn by the owner while still alive, 3rd Intermediate Period; Source: On the other hand much of the ancient Egyptian pharmacopoeia and many medical practices were ineffective, if not downright deleterious: According to the American Lung Association, carbohydrates produce more carbon dioxide than protein or fat.
Indian Journal of Pediatrics. Acute lower respiratory infections in childhood: Bulletin of the World Health Organization. WHO estimates of the causes of death in children. World Health Organization; Effect of weekly zinc supplements on incidence of pneumonia and diarrhoea in children younger than 2 years in an urban, low-income population in Bangladesh: How many child deaths can we prevent this year?
Interventions for maternal and child undernutrition and survival. Zinc supplementation for the prevention of pneumonia in children aged 2 months to 59 months. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Zinc supplementation for the prevention of acute lower respiratory infection in children in developing countries: International Journal of Epidemiology.
Clinical management of acute diarrhea. Bao S, Knoell DL. Zinc modulates airway epithelium susceptibility to death receptor- mediated apoptosis.
Efficacy of zinc in the treatment of severe pneumonia in hospitalized children less than 2 years old. Zinc and vitamin A supplementation in Indigenous Australian children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infection: Medical Journal of Australia.
Mahalanabis D et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the efficacy of treatment with zinc or vitamin A in infants and young children with severe acute lower respiratory infection.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, , Effect of routine zinc supplementation on pneumonia in children aged 6 months to 3 years: Zinc and iron supplementation and malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections in children in the Peruvian Amazon.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine. A double-blind, randomized, clinical trial of the effect of vitamin A and zinc supplementation on diarrheal disease and respiratory tract infections in children in Mexico City, Mexico. Zinc and rehabilitation from severe protein-energy malnutrition: Higher dose regimens are associated with increased mortality.
Higher risk of zinc deficiency in New Zealand Pacific school children compared with their Maori and European counterparts: British Journal of Nutrition. Institute of Medicine dietary reference intakes: Hypocupremia induced by zinc therapy in adults. Journal of the American Medical Association. Dekker LH, Villamor E. Zinc supplementation in children is not associated with decreases in hemoglobin concentrations. Effects of micronutrient intake on survival in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.
American Journal of Epidemiology. Bioavailability of energy, nitrogen, fat, zinc, iron and calcium from rural Mexican diets. British Journal of Nutritio. Zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of acute lower respiratory infections in infants and preschool children: Learning from within-study and among-study comparisons — trials of zinc supplementation and childhood acute lower respiratory illness episodes in the developing world.
Skip to main content. Largely impacting developing countries where health facilities and systems are weaker, poverty is also resulting in largely curable and preventable diseases from killing millions each year. There are also other issues such as the various cultural and traditional barriers, and social issues and taboos that need to be overcome in some parts of the developing world, for treatments to be made readily accessible. However, a look, for example, at the causes of poverty , as described on this web site, would help indicate why these issues are important for developed and wealthy nations alike and what roles and responsibilities they have as well:.
Africa Action , an organization looking into political, economic and social justice for Africa has an article on the impacts of IMF and World Bank structural adjustments and its impacts on health in Africa, and is worth quoting at length:. Health status is influenced by socioeconomic factors as well as by the state of health care delivery systems.
The policies prescribed by the World Bank and IMF have increased poverty in African countries and mandated cutbacks in the health sector. The health care systems inherited by most African states after the colonial era were unevenly weighted toward privileged elites and urban centers. In the s and s, substantial progress was made in improving the reach of health care services in many African countries. Most African governments increased spending on the health sector during this period.
They endeavored to extend primary health care and to emphasize the development of a public health system to redress the inequalities of the colonial era. The Declaration of Alma Ata focused on a community-based approach to health care and resolved that comprehensive health care was a basic right and a responsibility of government.
While the progress across the African continent was uneven, it was significant, not only because of its positive effects on the health of African populations. It also illustrated a commitment by African leaders to the principle of building and developing their health care systems.
As African governments became clients of the World Bank and IMF, they forfeited control over their domestic spending priorities. The loan conditions of these institutions forced contraction in government spending on health and other social services….
The relationship between poverty and ill-health is well established. The economic austerity policies attached to World Bank and IMF loans led to intensified poverty in many African countries in the s and s. This increased the vulnerability of African populations to the spread of diseases and to other health problems….
The deepening poverty across the continent has created fertile ground for the spread of infectious diseases. Declining living conditions and reduced access to basic services have led to decreased health status. In Africa today, almost half of the population lacks access to safe water and adequate sanitation services.
Even as government spending on health was cut back, the amounts being paid by African governments to foreign creditors continued to increase. By the s, most African countries were spending more repaying foreign debts than on health or education for their people. Health care services in African countries disintegrated, while desperately needed resources were siphoned off by foreign creditors.
It was estimated in that sub-Saharan African governments were transferring to Northern creditors four times what they were spending on the health of their people. In , Senegal spent five times as much repaying foreign debts as on health. Efforts to address the health crisis have been undermined by the lack of available resources and the breakdown in health care delivery systems.
The privatization of basic health care has further impeded the response to the health crisis…. The World Bank has recommended several forms of privatization in the health sector…. Throughout Africa, the privatization of health care has reduced access to necessary services.
The introduction of market principles into health care delivery has transformed health care from a public service to a private commodity. The outcome has been the denial of access to the poor, who cannot afford to pay for private care…. For example … user fees have actually succeeded in driving the poor away from health care [while] the promotion of insurance schemes as a means to defray the costs of private health care … is inherently flawed in the African context.
When infectious diseases constitute the greatest challenge to health in Africa, public health services are essential. Private health care cannot make the necessary interventions at the community level. Private care is less effective at prevention, and is less able to cope with epidemic situations. The privatization of health care in Africa has created a two-tier system which reinforces economic and social inequalities. As health care has become an expensive privilege, the poor have been unable to pay for essential services.
The result has been reduced access and increased rates of illness and mortality. Despite these devastating consequences, the World Bank and IMF have continued to push for the privatization of public health services. While the shift in focus towards prioritizing social development and poverty eradication is welcome, fundamental problems remain.
New lending for health and education can achieve little when the debt burden of most African countries is already unsustainable. Debt cancellation should be the first step in enabling African countries to tackle their social development challenges.
Additional resources to support health and education programs should be conceived as public investment, not new loans. The new spin on the World Bank and IMF priorities fails to change the basic agenda and operations of these institutions.
Indeed, it appears to be largely an exercise in public relations. The conditions attached to World Bank and IMF loans still reflect the same orientation prescribed over the past two decades. The recent moves towards promoting poverty reduction have actually permitted these institutions to increase the scope of their loan conditions to include social sector reforms and governance aspects.
This allows an even greater intrusion into the domestic policies of African countries. It is highly inappropriate that external creditors should have such control over the priorities of African governments. And it is disingenuous for such creditors to proclaim concern with poverty reduction when they continue to drain desperately needed resources from the poorest countries….
The all-out pursuit of market-led growth has undermined health and health care in African countries.