Fact sheet categories
Pearson product-moment Partial correlation Confounding variable Coefficient of determination. This attrition of participants is not random, so samples can become less representative with successive assessments. Also, both employment and unemployment rise every June, when students enter the labor force in search of summer jobs. Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons. Saturated fats typically from animal sources have been a staple in many world cultures for millennia.
Smoking, alcohol consumption, sexual practices, drug use, physical fitness and activity, weight, and dietary intake will be studied. Data on certain aspects of reproductive health, such as use of oral contraceptives and breastfeeding practices, will also be collected.
The sample for the survey is selected to represent the U. Since the United States has experienced dramatic growth in the number of older people during this century, the aging population has major implications for health care needs, public policy, and research priorities. NCHS is working with public health agencies to increase the knowledge of the health status of older Americans. All participants visit the physician.
Dietary interviews and body measurements are included for everyone. All but the very young have a blood sample taken and will have a dental screening. Depending upon the age of the participant, the rest of the examination includes tests and procedures to assess the various aspects of health listed above.
In general, the older the individual, the more extensive the examination. Health measurements are performed in specially-designed and equipped mobile centers, which travel to locations throughout the country. The study team consists of a physician, medical and health technicians, as well as dietary and health interviewers.
An advanced computer system using high-end servers, desktop PCs, and wide-area networking collect and process all of the NHANES data, nearly eliminating the need for paper forms and manual coding operations. This system allows interviewers to use notebook computers with electronic pens. The staff at the mobile center can automatically transmit data into data bases through such devices as digital scales and stadiometers.
Touch-sensitive computer screens let respondents enter their own responses to certain sensitive questions in complete privacy. Survey information is available to NCHS staff within 24 hours of collection, which enhances the capability of collecting quality data and increases the speed with which results are released to the public.
In each location, local health and government officials are notified of the upcoming survey. Local media may feature stories about the survey.
The Ministry of Women and Child Development has come up with several schemes deciding the norms of child nutrition. The survey collected extensive information on population, health, and nutrition, with an emphasis on women and young children.
All the state-level and national-level reports for the survey have already been published 48 reports in all. The second National Family Health Survey NFHS-2 was conducted in in all 26 states of India with added features on the quality of health and family planning services, domestic violence, reproductive health, anemia, the nutrition of women, and the status of women.
The results of the survey are currently being published. Eighteen Research Organizations including five Population Research Centres carried out the survey in 29 states of India. Like its predecessors, NFHS-4 will be conducted under the stewardship of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, coordinated by the International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, and implemented by a group of survey organizations and Population Research Centres, following a rigorous selection procedure.
In addition to the 29 states, NFHS-4 will also include all six union territories for the first time and will also provide estimates of most indicators at the district level for all districts in the country as per the census. This is expected to yield a total sample of , women and 93, men eligible for the interview. In these households information on , children below age 5 will be collected in the survey.
NFHS- will provide updates and evidence of trends in key population, health and nutrition indicators, including HIV prevalence. Moreover, the survey will cover a range of health-related issues, including fertility, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, perinatal mortality, adolescent reproductive health, high-risk sexual behaviour, safe injections, tuberculosis, and malaria, non-communicable diseases, domestic violence, HIV knowledge, and attitudes toward people living with HIV.
Biomaker Household Mans Womans. Key Findings Report The survey is based on a sample of households which is representative at the National and State levels. For the first time, NFHS-3 also provides information on men and unmarried women. In addition, HIV prevalence is measured at the national level and for selected states. These Fact Sheets presents provisional information on key indicators and trends at the national level.
State Reports of the following States have been released and key findings disseminated in their respective State capitals. The Seminar Presentations of the key findings for different states are also available online.
A quarter of India's population lives below what has been termed a 'starvation line'. Why have foodgrain and calorieconsumption actually fallen in the last 15 years of structural adjustment? Why have foodgrain and calorie consumption actually fallen in the last 15 years of structural.
The World Bank Keywords: Drawing on qualitative studies and quantitative evidence from large household surveys, this book explores the dimensions of child undernutrition in India and examines the effectiveness of the Integrated Child Development Services ICDS program, India's main early child development intervention, in addressing it.
Although levels of undernutrition in India declined modestly during the s, the reductions lagged behind those achieved by other countries with similar economic growth. Nutritional inequalities across different states and socioeconomic and demographic groups remain large. Although the ICDS program appears to be well-designed and well-placed to address the multi-dimensional causes of malnutrition in India, several problems exist that prevent it from reaching its potential.
The book concludes with a discussion of a number of concrete actions that can be taken to bridge the gap between the policy intentions of ICDS and its actual implementation. Each country profile is structured under the following sub-headings: Population Consumer segmentation Households Household segmentation Labour Income Consumer expenditures Food and non-alcoholic beverages Alcoholic beverages and tobacco Clothing and footwear Housing Household goods and services Transport Communications Leisure and recreation Education Hotels and catering Miscellaneous goods and services The information in this report was gathered from a wide range of sources, starting with national statistics offices.
This information was cross-checked for consistency, probability and mathematical accuracy. Secondly, we sought to fill in the gaps in the official national statistics by using private-sector surveys and official pan-regional and global sources. Furthermore, Euromonitor International has carried out an extensive amount of modelling in order to come up with interesting data sets to complement the national standards available.
The wide range of sources used in the compilation of this report means that there are occasional discrepancies in the data, which we were not able to reconcile in every instance. Even when the data is produced by the same national statistical office on a specific parameter, like the total Population in a particular year, discrepancies can occur depending on whether it was derived from a survey, a national census or a projection and whether the data is based on mid-year or January figures.
For slow trends where it is interesting to look at a long period as well as projections, data is presented for , , , , and Fast-moving trends are illustrated with data sets relating to , , , and Initiation of Breastfeeding by Breast Crawl visit breastcrawl. Every newborn, when placed on the mother's abdomen, soon after birth, has the ability to find its mother's breast all on its own and to decide when to take the first breastfeed.
This is called the "Breast Crawl". This method is evidence based and has been field tested by us. A documentary on the "Breast Crawl" has been prepared for training, advocacy and for wider dissemination.
The video has created a very high level of sensitivity among all the levels of functionaries and was officially endorsed by senior policy makers as the right approach for initiating breastfeeding. This dossier provides the background and a scientific overview to the documentary. We are sure that this documentary and dossier will greatly help similar initiatives worldwide.
It is our strong desire that this information helps every mother and baby to experience the miracle of Breast Crawl. This can be achieved by training all health care providers to initiate breastfeeding, by Breast Crawl, to give infants the best start in life. And yet, so many of them die. To lose a newborn life like this is heartbreaking.
Especially when we know that such tragedies can be prevented. We strongly believe that if a mother's health is attended to, if she receives basic nutrition, health care and education in her formative years as well as during pregnancy, then newborn babies would not have to die. WHO is providing technical support to the national scale up of counselling and testing services including monitoring and evaluation of the programme.
Operational guidelines for ICTC Several informative and low-priced books and journals are brought out by the Institute in English as well as in some regional languages.
These publications contain the quintessence of Institute's research endeavors over the years. To popularise these publications among people, a short write-up describing the essential features of these publications is given below.
It contains a simple account of current concepts of nutrition science, nutritional chemistry of major food groups and nutritional deficiency diseases. In addition, the book incorporates latest information on nutritional requirement and recommended dietary allowances and on the guidelines for formulating healthy, balanced diets.
This book is a must for all those who wish to know more about nutritive value of foods including students, medical and health professionals, planners as well as general public.
Nationwide surveys have revealed a wide prevalence of malnutrition among mothers and children, mainly belonging to the underprivileged sections of society. The book discusses in-depth the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating mothers, infants and pre-school aged children.
Several types of low-cost nutritious recipes are described in the book after thoroughly testing these foods in the community for acceptability and tolerance.
It is hoped that this low priced informative book will serve the dual purpose of training the health personnel and educating the average Indian housewife in ensuring better health for herself and her child.
This book contains such updated information on the protein energy requirements, definition of quantum and type of fat intakes and other related themes. In addition, ADA for some other nutrients like fat-soluble vitamins, trace elements and electrolytes are also listed.
The book is a good reference guide especially for policy makers and researchers. The details pertaining to cooking methods and nutritive value of these recipes will help housewives to plan healthy menus for the family and also assist in formulating nutritious school lunches and community feeding programmes. Hostels, restaurants and cafeterias can take a few dietary tips from this book. This booklet discusses the principles governing the formulation of these recipes and lists out several food supplements for infants and young children.
Most of these recipes are based on coarse cereals, legumes and other locally available foods. This low priced booklet will help mothers to plan healthy diets for their children in the most economical way.
Ingredients used in the preparation of these recipes are inexpensive and method of cooking described is simple. These two low priced booklets will help in strengthening the school meal programmes operational in some parts of the country. Though a variety of fruits are grown and consumed in the country, the prevalence of micronutrient malnutrition is alarmingly high among people.
This book contains wealth of information on the nutritional aspects of several popular fruits including amla, papaya, guava, sapota, seetaphal and many others. A section of the book has been devoted to a range of lip smacking fruit-based recipes.
It is always a challenge to make recipes both nutritious as well as tasty. This book provides information on different methods of cooking and on protein, carbohydrate, fat and mineral contents of each of these recipes. A glossary of terms commonly used in food preparations is also presented. The book helps the research workers too in the calculation of the nutrient content of diets of people. Their number keeps steadily increasing as a direct consequence of increased life expectancy.
They are hormones , in some respects. The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid EPA , which can be made in the human body from the omega-3 essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid ALA , or taken in through marine food sources, serves as a building block for series 3 prostaglandins e.
The omega-6 dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid DGLA serves as a building block for series 1 prostaglandins e. An appropriately balanced intake of omega-3 and omega-6 partly determines the relative production of different prostaglandins, which is one reason why a balance between omega-3 and omega-6 is believed important for cardiovascular health.
In industrialized societies, people typically consume large amounts of processed vegetable oils, which have reduced amounts of the essential fatty acids along with too much of omega-6 fatty acids relative to omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, the conversion desaturation of DGLA to AA is controlled by the enzyme deltadesaturase , which in turn is controlled by hormones such as insulin up-regulation and glucagon down-regulation.
The amount and type of carbohydrates consumed, along with some types of amino acid, can influence processes involving insulin, glucagon, and other hormones; therefore, the ratio of omega-3 versus omega-6 has wide effects on general health, and specific effects on immune function and inflammation , and mitosis i.
Proteins are structural materials in much of the animal body e. They also form the enzymes that control chemical reactions throughout the body. Each protein molecule is composed of amino acids , which are characterized by inclusion of nitrogen and sometimes sulphur these components are responsible for the distinctive smell of burning protein, such as the keratin in hair.
The body requires amino acids to produce new proteins protein retention and to replace damaged proteins maintenance. As there is no protein or amino acid storage provision, amino acids must be present in the diet.
Excess amino acids are discarded, typically in the urine. For all animals, some amino acids are essential an animal cannot produce them internally and some are non-essential the animal can produce them from other nitrogen-containing compounds. About twenty amino acids are found in the human body, and about ten of these are essential and, therefore, must be included in the diet.
A diet that contains adequate amounts of amino acids especially those that are essential is particularly important in some situations: A complete protein source contains all the essential amino acids; an incomplete protein source lacks one or more of the essential amino acids. It is possible with protein combinations of two incomplete protein sources e.
However, complementary sources of protein do not need to be eaten at the same meal to be used together by the body. Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms; including urine and feces , sweating , and by water vapour in the exhaled breath. Therefore, it is necessary to adequately rehydrate to replace lost fluids. Early recommendations for the quantity of water required for maintenance of good health suggested that 6—8 glasses of water daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration.
Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods. For healthful hydration, the current EFSA guidelines recommend total water intakes of 2. These reference values include water from drinking water, other beverages, and from food. The EFSA panel also determined intakes for different populations. Recommended intake volumes in the elderly are the same as for adults as despite lower energy consumption, the water requirement of this group is increased due to a reduction in renal concentrating capacity.
Dehydration and over-hydration - too little and too much water, respectively - can have harmful consequences. Drinking too much water is one of the possible causes of hyponatremia , i.
Pure ethanol provides 7 calories per gram. For distilled spirits , a standard serving in the United States is 1. A 5 ounce serving of wine contains to calories. A 12 ounce serving of beer contains 95 to calories. Alcoholic beverages are considered empty calorie foods because other than calories, these contribute no essential nutrients.
The micronutrients are minerals , vitamins , and others. Dietary minerals are inorganic chemical elements required by living organisms,  other than the four elements carbon , hydrogen , nitrogen , and oxygen that are present in nearly all organic molecules. The term "mineral" is archaic, since the intent is to describe simply the less common elements in the diet. Some are heavier than the four just mentioned, including several metals , which often occur as ions in the body.
Some dietitians recommend that these be supplied from foods in which they occur naturally, or at least as complex compounds, or sometimes even from natural inorganic sources such as calcium carbonate from ground oyster shells. Some minerals are absorbed much more readily in the ionic forms found in such sources.
On the other hand, minerals are often artificially added to the diet as supplements; the most famous is likely iodine in iodized salt which prevents goiter. Many elements are essential in relative quantity; they are usually called "bulk minerals".
Some are structural, but many play a role as electrolytes. Many elements are required in trace amounts, usually because they play a catalytic role in enzymes. Vitamins are essential nutrients,  necessary in the diet for good health. Vitamin D is an exception, as it can be synthesized in the skin in the presence of UVB radiation , and many animal species can synthesize vitamin C. Vitamin deficiencies may result in disease conditions, including goitre , scurvy , osteoporosis , impaired immune system, disorders of cell metabolism, certain forms of cancer, symptoms of premature aging, and poor psychological health , among many others.
Phytochemicals such as polyphenols are compounds produced naturally in plants phyto means "plant" in Greek. In general, the term is used to refer to compounds which do not appear to be nutritionally essential and yet may have positive impacts on health. To date, there is no conclusive evidence in humans that polyphenols or other non-nutrient compounds from plants have health benefit effects. While initial studies sought to reveal if nutrient antioxidant supplements might promote health, one meta-analysis concluded that supplementation with vitamins A and E and beta-carotene did not convey any benefits and may in fact increase risk of death.
Vitamin C and selenium supplements did not impact mortality rate. Health effects of non-nutrient phytochemicals such as polyphenols were not assessed in this review.
Animal intestines contain a large population of gut flora. In humans, the four dominant phyla are Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes , Actinobacteria , and Proteobacteria.
Bacteria in the large intestine perform many important functions for humans, including breaking down and aiding in the absorption of fermentable fiber, stimulating cell growth, repressing the growth of harmful bacteria, training the immune system to respond only to pathogens, producing vitamin B 12 , and defending against some infectious diseases. There is not yet a scientific consensus as to health benefits accruing from probiotics or prebiotics.
Carnivore and herbivore diets are contrasting, with basic nitrogen and carbon proportions vary for their particular foods. Many herbivores rely on bacterial fermentation to create digestible nutrients from indigestible plant cellulose, while obligate carnivores must eat animal meats to obtain certain vitamins or nutrients their bodies cannot otherwise synthesize. Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth. Some elements are directly involved in plant metabolism.
However, this principle does not account for the so-called beneficial elements, whose presence, while not required, has clear positive effects on plant growth. A nutrient that is able to limit plant growth according to Liebig's law of the minimum is considered an essential plant nutrient if the plant cannot complete its full life cycle without it. There are 16 essential plant soil nutrients, besides the three major elemental nutrients carbon and oxygen that are obtained by photosynthetic plants from carbon dioxide in air, and hydrogen , which is obtained from water.
Plants uptake essential elements from the soil through their roots and from the air consisting of mainly nitrogen and oxygen through their leaves.
Green plants obtain their carbohydrate supply from the carbon dioxide in the air by the process of photosynthesis. Carbon and oxygen are absorbed from the air, while other nutrients are absorbed from the soil. These hydrogen ions displace cations attached to negatively charged soil particles so that the cations are available for uptake by the root.
In the leaves, stomata open to take in carbon dioxide and expel oxygen. The carbon dioxide molecules are used as the carbon source in photosynthesis.
Although nitrogen is plentiful in the Earth's atmosphere, very few plants can use this directly. Most plants, therefore, require nitrogen compounds to be present in the soil in which they grow. This is made possible by the fact that largely inert atmospheric nitrogen is changed in a nitrogen fixation process to biologically usable forms in the soil by bacteria.
Plant nutrition is a difficult subject to understand completely, partially because of the variation between different plants and even between different species or individuals of a given clone. Elements present at low levels may cause deficiency symptoms, and toxicity is possible at levels that are too high. Furthermore, deficiency of one element may present as symptoms of toxicity from another element, and vice versa.
Canada's Food Guide is an example of a government-run nutrition program. Produced by Health Canada , the guide advises food quantities, provides education on balanced nutrition, and promotes physical activity in accordance with government-mandated nutrient needs. Like other nutrition programs around the world, Canada's Food Guide divides nutrition into four main food groups: Dietary and physical activity guidelines from the USDA are presented in the concept of MyPlate , which superseded the food pyramid , which replaced the Four Food Groups.
Department of Health and Human Services provides a sample week-long menu that fulfills the nutritional recommendations of the government. Governmental organisations have been working on nutrition literacy interventions in non-primary health care settings to address the nutrition information problem in the U.
The FNP has developed a series of tools to help families participating in the Food Stamp Program stretch their food dollar and form healthful eating habits including nutrition education. It is designed to assist limited-resource audiences in acquiring the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and changed behavior necessary for nutritionally sound diets, and to contribute to their personal development and the improvement of the total family diet and nutritional well-being.
Launched in , this program promotes lifelong healthful eating patterns and physically active lifestyles for children and their families.
It is an interactive educational program designed to help prevent childhood obesity through classroom activities that teach children healthful eating habits and physical exercise. Nutrition is taught in schools in many countries. In England and Wales , the Personal and Social Education and Food Technology curricula include nutrition, stressing the importance of a balanced diet and teaching how to read nutrition labels on packaging.
In many schools, a Nutrition class will fall within the Family and Consumer Science or Health departments. In some American schools, students are required to take a certain number of FCS or Health related classes. Nutrition is offered at many schools, and, if it is not a class of its own, nutrition is included in other FCS or Health classes such as: In many Nutrition classes, students learn about the food groups, the food pyramid, Daily Recommended Allowances, calories, vitamins, minerals, malnutrition, physical activity, healthful food choices, portion sizes, and how to live a healthy life.
In the US, Registered dietitian nutritionists RDs or RDNs  are health professionals qualified to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice which includes a review of what is eaten, a thorough review of nutritional health, and a personalized nutritional treatment plan. They also provide preventive and therapeutic programs at work places, schools and similar institutions. Certified Clinical Nutritionists or CCNs, are trained health professionals who also offer dietary advice on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possible prevention or remediation by addressing nutritional deficiencies before resorting to drugs.
These Board Certified Nutritionists typically specialize in obesity and chronic disease. In order to become board certified, potential CNS candidate must pass an examination, much like Registered Dieticians. This exam covers specific domains within the health sphere including; Clinical Intervention and Human Health. The study found that health literacy increases with education and people living below the level of poverty have lower health literacy than those above it.
Another study examining the health and nutrition literacy status of residents of the lower Mississippi Delta found that 52 percent of participants had a high likelihood of limited literacy skills.
For example, only 12 percent of study participants identified the My Pyramid graphic two years after it had been launched by the USDA. The study also found significant relationships between nutrition literacy and income level and nutrition literacy and educational attainment  further delineating priorities for the region. Among these problems are the lack of information about food choices, a lack of understanding of nutritional information and its application to individual circumstances, limited or difficult access to healthful foods, and a range of cultural influences and socioeconomic constraints such as low levels of education and high levels of poverty that decrease opportunities for healthful eating and living.
The links between low health literacy and poor health outcomes has been widely documented  and there is evidence that some interventions to improve health literacy have produced successful results in the primary care setting.
More must be done to further our understanding of nutrition literacy specific interventions in non-primary care settings  in order to achieve better health outcomes. Malnutrition refers to insufficient, excessive, or imbalanced consumption of nutrients by an organism. In developed countries, the diseases of malnutrition are most often associated with nutritional imbalances or excessive consumption.
In developing countries, malnutrition is more likely to be caused by poor access to a range of nutritious foods or inadequate knowledge. The aim was to boost nutrition and livelihoods by producing a product that women could make and sell, and which would be accepted by the local community because of its local heritage.
Although under- and over-nutrition are often viewed as human problems, pet animals can be under- or overfed by their owners, domesticated animals can be undernourished for macro- and micro-nutrients, affecting growth and health, and wild animals can be undernourished to the point of starvation and death. Nutritionism is the view that excessive reliance on food science and the study of nutrition can lead to poor nutrition and to ill health.
It was originally credited to Gyorgy Scrinis ,  and was popularized by Michael Pollan. Since nutrients are invisible, policy makers rely on nutrition experts to advise on food choices. Because science has an incomplete understanding of how food affects the human body, Pollan argues, nutritionism can be blamed for many of the health problems relating to diet in the Western World today. ULs are set a safe fraction below amounts shown to cause health problems.
ULs are part of Dietary Reference Intakes. When too much of one or more nutrients is present in the diet to the exclusion of the proper amount of other nutrients, the diet is said to be unbalanced.
High calorie food ingredients such as vegetable oils, sugar and alcohol are referred to as "empty calories" because they displace from the diet foods that also contain protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber. Research indicates that improving the awareness of nutritious meal choices and establishing long-term habits of healthy eating have a positive effect on cognitive and spatial memory capacity, with potential to increase a student's ability to process and retain academic information.
Some organizations have begun working with teachers, policymakers, and managed foodservice contractors to mandate improved nutritional content and increased nutritional resources in school cafeterias from primary to university level institutions. Health and nutrition have been proven to have close links with overall educational success.
There is limited research available that directly links a student's Grade Point Average G. Additional substantive data is needed to prove that overall intellectual health is closely linked to a person's diet, rather than just another correlation fallacy. Nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for major depression , bipolar disorder , schizophrenia , and obsessive compulsive disorder , the four most common mental disorders in developed countries.
Cancer is now common in developing countries. According to a study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer , "In the developing world, cancers of the liver, stomach and esophagus were more common, often linked to consumption of carcinogenic preserved foods, such as smoked or salted food, and parasitic infections that attack organs.
Several lines of evidence indicate lifestyle-induced hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin function i. For example, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are strongly linked to chronic inflammation, which in turn is strongly linked to a variety of adverse developments such as arterial microtrauma and clot formation i. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance the so-called metabolic syndrome are characterized by a combination of abdominal obesity , elevated blood sugar , elevated blood pressure , elevated blood triglycerides , and reduced HDL cholesterol.
The state of obesity clearly contributes to insulin resistance, which in turn can cause type 2 diabetes. Virtually all obese and most type 2 diabetic individuals have marked insulin resistance. Although the association between overweight and insulin resistance is clear, the exact likely multifarious causes of insulin resistance remain less clear.