Division Eumycota: Meaning, Characteristics and Classification

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Kg visited the supermarket 'Haiko' at Hiranandani Gardens on 14th and 18th July respectively. Both Rhodiola rosea extracts and salidroside have contrast molecular mechanisms on cancer and normal physiological functions. By Swami Abhedananda Jesus was a great Yogi, because He realized the transitory and ephemeral nature of the phenomenal world, and, discriminating the real from the unreal, renounced all desires for worldly pleasures and bodily comforts. Depending on where you live, local guided meditation classes may also be available. Geography is the study of the earth as the home of Man.

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In the universe, behind the universal mind, there is a Soul that exists, and it is called God. In the individual it is the soul of man.

In this universe, in the cosmos, just as the universal mind becomes evolved into Akasha and Prana, even so, we may find that the Universal Soul Itself becomes evolved as mind.

Is it really so with the individual man? Is his mind the creator of his body, and his soul the creator of his mind? That is to say, are his body, his mind, and his soul three different existences or are they three in one or, again, are they different states of existence of the same unit being?

We shall gradually try to find an answer to this question. The first step that we have now gained is this: At the first step, we have found, as it were, that the soul is separate from the body, separate from the mind itself. The Message of the Guru Taittiriya Upanishad Stories and episodes 32 A model message from a guru to a departing disciple, at the end of his stay at the guru's ashrama..

Who is it that some agency other than the human has taught you this knowledge? Golden Eagle dragging mountain goats off cliffs. The seer of the Upanishad ultimately explains the nature of the Spirit and then of consciousness in man. He describes the Purusha or the person who co-ordinates all consciousness. Here is a typical picture of the enquiries of those times and the way they went about seeking after truth.

That is the lesson taught by the Rishi sage here to his wife Maitreyi. The classic conversation between this extremely loving pair is admittedly very sweet and eloquent. Passages from it are often quoted. The beautiful story occurs in the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad. By a number of homely illustrations he conveys to his son the subtle knowledge of the Atman soul and impresses upon him the fact that, in essence, he too is the Atman. This fact has been emphasized in this short story of Balaki and Ajatashatru.

Balaki was a vain and empty-headed young man and he was taught a lesson by the learned prince Ajatashatru. Who was it that had slept and who was active? By persistent questioning he persuades Yama to part with the mystic knowledge about the soul and the Supreme Spirit.

What is more, he elicits from Yama the full course of the pathway to the realization of the great truth. It is this pathway that later developed into the more scientific Yoga school of Patanjali. This story describes the adventure of young Nachiketa. This has been an eternal question.

It is through the power of all this all-pervasive Spirit that everything else functions. It is beyond the reach of the senses and can only be felt like a mighty presence through intuition. It is that Spirit which is real God and not the many gods that people worship. For, the Supreme God, Brahma and the ultimate Reality are the same. This is the teaching of the Kenopanishad and has been embodied in the allegory of Uma, the goddess of spiritual wisdom.

The Rg Veda mentions the division. Here is an explanation of that system given in an allegorical manner. It is said here that society is complete and perfect on account of the existence of all these four divisions but much more so on account of the law which binds all and which all ought to obey. In fact both ought to be acquired and both are equally important. Nor are they mutually exclusive. One is incomplete without the other. The Five sheaths Taittiriya Upanishad Stories and episodes 33 The spirit is, as it were, encased in five sheaths koshas , one within the other.

We first come across the gross material sheath, and then go deeper to more subtle sheaths, the last being the sheath of joy or bliss. This teaching occurs in the Taittiriya Upanishad and forms the subject of a conversation between Varuna and his son. But can we get any idea of that bliss? Can we have a measure of it? Let us suppose that there is a strong, well-built, virtuous young man.

If he is a man, firm of mind and full of ambition and if he becomes the owner of this world, he enjoys full happiness. That may be counted as one unit of full human happiness.

But, in comparison, what is the measure of that infinite spiritual bliss? It is an integral gospel. The Isha is comparatively a very short Upanishad, but every word of it is pregnant with meaning. It gives us the knowledge of Brahman Highest Being and advises us to cultivate a healthy and vigorous attitude towards life and its problems.

It synthesizes the material as well as the spiritual aspect of life. It does not want us to neglect either since matter is spirit in manifestation. It emphasizes that true knowledge consists in the right understanding of both as also their correct relation. Micro-waved Water - See what it does to Plants! Also Trees have life From Mahabharata.

Congratulations, Arielle, well done! Below is a science fair project that my granddaughter did for In it she took filered water and divided it into two parts. The first part she heated to boiling in a pan on the stove, and the second part she heated to boiling in a microwave.

Then after cooling she used the water to water two identical plants to see if there would be any difference in the growth between the normal boiled water and the water boiled in a microwave.

She was thinking that the structure or energy of the water may be compromised by microwave. As it turned out, even she was amazed at the difference. The plants were genetically identical, they were produced from grafts from the same parent plant, so that variable can be eliminated.

Here's a simple test I just read about which coincides with Walt's comments: Plant some seeds in 2 pots. Water one with the cooled water that was microwaved and one that's from the tap. The seeds watered from the microwaved water will not sprout. I tried this comparing microwaved water as compared to conventional heating and it's true - the microwaved water prevented the seeds from growing! There is something to this.

There is a wealth of info on the net about how microwaved food is chemically altered, etc. I just figured why not err on the side of caution and use other means of cooking. I use a flashbake oven which uses halogen light technology. The seeds sprouted when using water from this oven. I have known for years that the problem with microwaved anything is not the radiation people used to worry about, It's how it corrupts the DNA in the food so the body cannot recognize it.

So the body wraps it in fat cells to protect itself from the dead food or it eliminates it fast. Think of all the Mothers heating up milk in these "Safe" appliances.

What about the nurse in Canada that warmed up blood for a transfusion patient and accidentally killed them when the blood went in dead. But the makers say it's safe. Never mind then, keep using them. Ask your Doctor I am sure they will say it's safe too.

Proof is in the pictures of living plants dying. Remember You are also Living. And adults could be at risk from the same poisons when food such as pizzas, curries and quiches are recooked. The warning comes from a respected team of Viennese researchers led by Dr.

They say microwaves can turn milk proteins into a variation of amino Acids, which the bodies of young babies cannot absorb. The report warns of Microwave Poison Risk. Microwaved Food caries a higher risk of food poisoning than conventionally cooked meals. Microwave cooking is less efficient than conventional ovens in destroying Salmonella and Listeria, and in the case of cook-chill meals, manufacturers' recommended cooking periods may not be adequate.

The Magazine quotes research in the United States which discovered that the Microwaving of Salmonella infected Chicken, following Manufacturers' cooking instructions, was unable to destroy contamination in eight out of nine cases. Similar research carried out earlier this year by Leeds University discovered that Microwaving was unable to destroy Listeria Bacteria in five of the twenty-seven contaminated dishes that were cooked.

The magazine now believes that the department of Health's guidance that Microwaved Food is safe if reheated to 70 degree for at least two minutes is wrong. In the Leeds study, temperatures of 91 degree were required to kill Listeria. Although the Report falls short of saying Microwaving is intrinsically dangerous, it believes that misleading instructions for precooked food, together with insufficient understanding of how the microwaving process works, are responsible for a high proportion of food poisoning cases in the home and in catering establishments.

Gina Field, spokesman for the Association said: If cook-chill food is contaminated, microwaving will not kill the bugs. We are also very alarmed at reports that small commercial caterers are using domestic microwave ovens to cook for hordes of people.

Domestic size ovens are not designed for constant use and will become less effective if they are used repeatedly. Based on this research, we will conclude this article with the following: Funeral Speeches A collection of scriptural texts about death and life Funeral of mother How to overcome grief These tears, like sparks of fire, burn the dead for whom they are shed. EGO If a man knows his own self, he knows other beings and God.

What is my ego? As you peel off the skin of an onion, you find it consists only of skin; you cannot find any kernel in it. Such an analysis of the ego convinces one that the ultimate substance is God alone.

When egotism drops away, Divinity manifests Itself. Bhakti Devotion The path of Love Nothing can be impressed on smooth glass, but when the surface is coated with proper chemicals, pictures can be impressed upon it, as in photography.

In the same way, on the human heart coated with the chemicals of Bhakti, the image of Divinity can be impressed. Worship of Images While raising a building, the scaffolding is indispensable; but when the work is completed, no one feels the necessity of it. So also image-worship is necessary in the beginning but not afterwards. The Destiny of Man The digit one may be raised to a figure of any value by adding zeros after it; but if that one is omitted, zeroes by themselves have no value.

Similarly so long as the jiva individual soul does not cling to God, Who is the One, he has no value, for all things here get their value from their connection with God. So long as the Jiva clings to God, Who is the value-giving figure behind the world, and does all his work for Him, he gains more and more thereby; on the contrary, if he overlooks God and adds to his work many grand achievements, all done for his own glorification, he will gain nothing there from.

First gain God, and then gain wealth; but do not try to do the contrary. If, after acquiring spirituality, you lead a worldly life, you will never lose your peace of mind. The Earliest Recorded Tsunami in History? The widows of the other heroes of the Bhoja, the Vrishni, and the Andhaka races, lordless now, that set out with Arjuna, numbered many millions.

That foremost of car-warriors, that conqueror of hostile towns, viz. After all the people had set out, the ocean, that home of sharks and alligators, flooded Dwarka, which still teemed with wealth of every kind, with its waters. Whatever portion of the ground was passed over, ocean immediately flooded over with his waters.

Beholding this wonderful sight, the inhabitants of Dwarka walked faster and faster, saying, - "Wonderful is the course of fate! Dhananjaya Arjuna , after abandoning Dwarka, proceeded by slow marches, causing the Vrishni women to rest in pleasant forest and mountains and by the sides of delightful streams. Real Worship By Swami Vivekananda It is in love that religion exists and not in ceremony, in the pure and sincere love in the heart. Unselfishness is the test of religion.

Prayers and Meditations From the Scriptures of India This is the sum of all the scriptures There is no sight equal to learning, no austerity equal to truthfulness, no misery like passion, and no happiness equal to following the ideal of renunciation. The secret meaning of the Vedas is truth; of truth, self-control; of self-control, freedom from all limitations.

This is the sum of all the scriptures. Purity of conduct is the greatest purity. Lord make me so pure and strong That all creatures may look upon me With friendship. And may I also look upon all creatures with friendship. And full of avarice and folly the whole world will have but one kind of food. And at such a time men will seek those countries where wheat and barley form the staple food. And the inhabited regions of the earth will be afflicted with dearth and famine,and the highways will be filled with lustful men and women of evil repute.

And men will be filled with anxiety as regards the means of living. Cows will be extinct. The girls will themselves choose their lords The women will always be sharp in speech and pitiless and fond of weeping. And they will never abide by the commands of their husbands. Women, living uncontrolled, will slay their husbands and sons. And the life of man will then be measured by sixteen years, on attaining to which age death will ensue.

And girls of five or six years of age will bring forth children and boys of seven or eight years of age will become fathers. Appreciations A selection of Letters from our readers. The man that recites this hymn rising at dawn, has no fear any time from Yakshas, Rakshasas, and Pisachas. He can have no enemies; he has no fear from snakes and all animals that have fangs and teeth, and also from kings.

He is sure to be victorious in all disputes, and if bound, he is freed from his bonds. He is sure to get over all difficulties, is freed from thieves, is ever victorious in battle and wins the goddess of prosperity forever. With health and strength, he lives for a hundred years. Growing up is optional. There are only four secrets to staying young, being happy and achieving success. Panini, Patanjali, Bhartruhari, Nandikeswara, Anjaneya and Bharata are outstanding among those who have contributed to the unravelling of the mystery of sound, music and creation.

From where and how did Indian music originate? The destructive effects of Acid Rock Music. Secrets of the Mala Rosary The significance of the number Japa may be done in three ways. One complete Mala of any of the above three categories involves the repetition of the Mantra times. The th bead called the Meru or summit acts as the guide. An important rule is not to cross over the Meru on completion of a Mala but retract and do the next Mala commencing at the point of finishing the previous Mala.

Thus we work back and forth from the Meru. An important interpretation of this rule is that the Meru represents the Guru or Preceptor whose importance in any spiritual discipline is unsurpassed, and he should not be crossed in any circumstance.

Virtue From The Mahabharata A person may become virtuous although he may be a slayer of animals by profession The high and excellent virtue of women The subtle truths of morality That son is virtuous who realises these hopes of his parents Virtuous conduct - What constitutes the highest virtue? It is the dictum of the aged that the ways of righteousness are subtle, diverse and infinite. When life is at stake and in the matter of marriage, it is proper to tell an untruth.

Untruth sometimes leads to the triumph of truth, and the latter dwindles into untruth. Whichever conduces most to the good of all creatures is considered to be truth.

Virtue is thus perverted; mark thou its subtle ways. How may they be subdued and what is the good of subduing them? And how does a creature reap the fruits thereof?

Vishnu Sahasranama From the Mahabharata names of Vishnu By uttering Vishnu's thousand names one can succeed in transcending all sorrow. That man who with devotion and perseverance and heart wholly turned towards Him Vishnu recites these thousand names of Vasudeva every day, after having purified himself, succeeds in acquiring great fame, a position of eminence among his kinsmen, enduring prosperity, and lastly, that which is of the highest benefit to him viz.

Such a man never meets with fear at any time, and acquires great prowess and energy. Disease never afflicts him; splendour of complexion, strength, beauty, and accomplishments become his. The sick become hale, the afflicted become freed from their afflictions; the affrighted become freed from fear, and he that is plunged in calamity becomes freed from calamity. Because it is a blessing to ourselves.

Swami Vivekananda calls upon us to serve God in man, and gives the key to blessedness in the following words: Yet, we must do good; the desire to do good is the highest motive power we have, if we know all the time that it is a privilege to help others.

It is not the receiver that is blessed, but it is the giver. Be thankful that you are allowed to exercise your power of benevolence and mercy in the world and thus become pure and perfect. It is entirely wrong to think that we have done, or can do, good to the world, to think that we have helped such and such people.

It is a foolish thought, and all foolish thoughts bring misery. We think that we have helped some man and expect him to thank us, and because he does not, unhappiness comes to us. Why should we expect anything in return for what we do? Be grateful to the man you help, think of him as God. Is it not a great privilege to be allowed to worship God by helping our fellow men? If we were really unattached, we should escape all this vain expectation, and could cheerfully do good work in the world.

True Prayer By Swami Abhedananda True prayer is the mental and verbal expression of the highest spiritual ideal. It consists not in trying to get anything from outside, but unfolding the higher powers that are slumbering within the soul. He that hates us is a Madraka. There is no friendship in the Madraka who is mean in speech and is the lowest of mankind. The Madraka is always a person of wicked soul, is always untruthful and crooked. It has been heard by us that till the moment of death the Madrakas are wicked.

Amongst the Madrakas the sire, the son, the mother, the mother-in-law, the brother, the grandson, and other kinsmen, companions, strangers arrived at their homes, slaves male and female, mingle together. The women of the Madrakas mingle, at their own will, with men known and unknown. Of unrighteous conduct, and subsisting upon fried and powdered corn and fish, in their homes, they laugh and cry having drunk spirits and eaten beef.

They sing incoherent songs and mingle lustfully with one another, indulging the while in the freest speeches. How then virtue have a place amongst the Madrakas who are arrogant and notorious for all kinds of evil acts? No one should make friends with a Madraka or provoke hostilities with him.

In the Madraka land there is no friendship. The Madraka is always the dirt of humanity. Resurrection From the Mahabharata Filled with joy, he once more questioned Vaisampayana on the subject of the reappearance of dead men, saying: How is it possible for persons whose bodies have been destroyed to re-appear in those very forms?

Om dyauh shaantih Antariksham shaantih Prithivee shaantih Aapah shaantih Oshadhayah shaantih Vanaspatayah shaantih Vishvedevaah shaantih Brahma shaantih Sarvam shaantih Shaantireva shaantih Saamaa shaantiredhih Om shaantih, shaantih, shaantih! O Supreme Lord, Thy celestial regions are full of peace and harmony; peace reigns on Thy earth and Thy waters. Thy herbs and trees are full of peace.

All Thy forces of nature are full of peace and harmony. There is peace and perfection in Thy eternal knowledge; everything in the universe is peaceful, and peace pervades everywhere. O Lord, may that peace come to me! Because man thinks of his body as himself, Karma becomes operative. This I-sense, which binds one to the body, is beginningless and is a result of ignorance.

In itself it is inert without consciousness, but being in association with the reflection of pure consciousness, it appears conscious, just as a red-hot piece of iron appears hot and shining in association with fire. Because the body is in identification with this I-sense, the body too appears to be endowed with consciousness. Dominated by the I-sense, the Atman embodied soul thinks of himself as the body and becomes subject to the cycle of births and deaths, and to the consequent experience of happiness and misery.

The Atman it itself is changeless but because of this false identification, he thinks: Thus, the embodied being becomes the performer of many actions and is helplessly bound by their consequences. He finds himself fettered and wanders hither and thither in this trans-migratory cycle as a victim of sinful and meritorious actions.

Acts are rooted in the universe and the universe is subject to destruction. From the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, I. Listen with concentrated attention, O child, to me, as I tell thee the place that is reached by one with the aid of knowledge, and that other place that is reached by one with the aid of acts. The difference between these two places is as great as the limitless sky.

These are the two paths upon which the Vedas are established; the duties indicated by Pravritti, and those based on Nivritti.

Stating that the pillar is "a living testimony to the skill of metallurgists of ancient India", Balasubramaniam said the "kinetic scheme" that his group developed for predicting growth of the protective film may be useful for modeling long-term corrosion behaviour of containers for nuclear storage applications The Delhi iron pillar is a testimony to the high level of skill achieved by ancient Indian iron smiths in the extraction and processing of iron.

The iron pillar at Delhi has attracted the attention of archaeologists and corrosion technologists as it has withstood corrosion for the last years. Why, one might ask, did Europe take over thousand years to attain the level of abstract mathematics achieved by Indians such as Aaryabhatta?

The answer appears to be that Europeans were trapped in the relatively simplistic and concrete geometrical mathematics developed by the Greeks. It was not until they had, via the Arabs, received, assimilated and accepted the place-value system of enumeration developed in India that they were able to free their minds from the concrete and develop more abstract systems of thought.

This development thus triggered the scientific and information technology revolutions which swept Europe and, later, the world. The role played by India in the development is no mere footnote, easily and inconsequentially swept under the rug of Eurocentric bias. To do so is to distort history, and to deny India one of it's greatest contributions to world civilization.

How did Hinduism start and when did it begin? What is the most important part of the religion? Do Hindus worship one God or many? Is the caste system an eternal principle? Is the use of images an universal practice? Mind Power- Affirmations Affirmations are one of the simplest and most powerful things we can do to change the quality of our lives, and to create the things we want. The prosperity secret of the ages: Vedic Mathematics Amazing Science These formulae describe the way the mind naturally works and are therefore a great help in directing the student to the appropriate method of solution.

Perhaps the most striking feature of the Vedic system is its coherence. Instead of a hotch-potch of unrelated techniques the whole system is beautifully interrelated and unified: And these are all easily understood.

This unifying quality is very satisfying, it makes mathematics easy and enjoyable and encourages innovation. There are many advantages in using a flexible, mental system. Pupils can invent their own methods, they are not limited to the one 'correct' method. This leads to more creative, interested and intelligent pupils. Interest in the Vedic system is growing in education where mathematics teachers are looking for something better and finding the Vedic system is the answer. Research is being carried out in many areas including the effects of learning Vedic Maths on children; developing new, powerful but easy applications of the Vedic Sutras in geometry, calculus, computing etc.

But the real beauty and effectiveness of Vedic Mathematics cannot be fully appreciated without actually practising the system. One can then see that it is perhaps the most refined and efficient mathematical system possible. Of what use is a mirror to a blind man? The elephant has a huge body but is controlled by the ankusha goad: A lighted candle banishes darkness: A mountain is broken even by a thunderbolt: No, he whose power prevails is really mighty; what is there in bulk?

Can it be acceptable to any decent human mind that such passages could be from the Bible, or the Quran or the Talmud? The Anti-Christ Anti noble human values Passages that instigate hatred, violence, murders and wars. The age of Muslim wars began as the cold war was winding down in the s. In Iraq invaded Iran, and the ensuing war produced at least , deaths and hundreds of thousands of wounded.

At the same time, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan generated vigorous Afghan resistance, which by compelled the Soviets to withdraw. This victory was made possible by American technology, Saudi and American money, Pakistani support and training, and the participation of thousands of fighters from other, mostly Arab, Muslim countries. Then in Saddam Hussein invaded and attempted to annex Kuwait, and the United States organized an international coalition, including several Muslim countries, to defeat him.

Mujahedin fighters from the Afghanistan war were central participants in many of these conflicts as well as in Muslim terrorist organizations in countries throughout the world. In the mids, roughly half the ethnic conflicts in the world involved Muslims fighting each other or non-Muslims.

In one inventory by The Economist, Muslims were responsible for 11 and possibly 12 of 16 major acts of international terrorism between and Five of the seven states listed by the U. State Department as supporting terrorism are Muslim, as are a majority of foreign organizations listed as engaged in terrorism.

In counter-actions between and , the U. According to the International Institute of Strategic Studies, 32 armed conflicts were underway in ; more than two thirds involved Muslims. The character of Prophet Muhammad has been misrepresented, not only by many prejudiced non-Muslim critics, but also by the violent, ambitious, and worldly-minded faithful Muslims as well. In his personal life, the prophet shines as a man of high character, integrity, and humanity.

But, after the Mongolian invasion of the thirteenth century A. There set in the slow and steady erosion of these universal and rational elements and the rising, to dominance, of its dogmatic and intolerant elements. The Mongol invaders, and later the Turks, were soon converted to Islam and became the carriers of Islamic religion, culture, and political power. This led to the increasing exploitation of the name of Islam by several military conquerors to destroy and rob and pillage other countries and cultures, which has given a bad name to this great religion.

The stagnation and decay of Islam commenced, as in the case of Sanatan Dharma in recent centuries, with the dominance of the Smrti over the Sruti elements. It was a dominance of the fundamentalist group over the ever-diminishing rational and humanist group which advocated the scientific approach and the stressing more and more of the eternal, universal, spiritual elements and the soft-pedalling of the temporal and local elements, in response to the advance of history.

Since the destruction of Baghdad, there has been an increasing dominance by its rigid and intolerant Sariah or Smrti elements, and the consequent exploitation of Islam, as referred to earlier, by power-hungry worldly-minded individuals to cover their own greed and bloodthirstiness. If Islam is to become creative once again, and help in the human development and fulfilment of its followers, it has to capture once again the rational and universal temper of its early period, by taking inspiration from the spirit of Islam and not from its letter.

The Bhagavad Gita - verse by verse All eighteen chapters. The Bhagavad Gita - Preamble What is the right thing to do? What is your verdict? The purpose of the Gita: To destroy illusion Svadharma War. Robbers are attacking a village at night, raping women, killing villagers, torching their houses.

To uphold righteousness, to protect the helpless villagers, a man trained as a soldier skilled with weapons, volunteers to defend the villagers and in the process, kill the robbers, if necessary. The robbers came several times, and this soldier successfully repelled them, killing many of them and feeling justly proud about carrying out his duty as a soldier to defend the weak.

His duty as a soldier is to lay down his life, if necessary, to carry out the duties of a true soldier. After many months had passed, one night, when some robbers came again to attack the villagers, the volunteer soldier was shocked on seeing many of the robbers as his cousins, uncles and friends, intent upon robbing and killing the villagers and raping the women.

They would not listen to reason. Was Christ a Yogi? By Swami Abhedananda Jesus was a great Yogi, because He realized the transitory and ephemeral nature of the phenomenal world, and, discriminating the real from the unreal, renounced all desires for worldly pleasures and bodily comforts. Like a great Yogi He lived a life of seclusion, cutting off all connections with earthly friends and relatives, and having neither home nor possessions of His own. Jesus the Christ was a great Karma Yogi, because He never worked for gains He worked without expectation of any fruits thereof.

He has neither desire for name nor ambition for fame or for earthly prosperity. His works were a free offering to the world. He laboured for others, devoted His whole life to help others, and in the end died for others. Being unattached to the fruits of his actions, he worked incessantly for the good of His fellow men, directing them to the path of righteousness and spiritual realization through unselfish works. He understood the law of action and reaction, which is the fundamental principle of the Karma yoga, and it was for this reason He declared: Jesus of Nazareth proved Himself to be a great Bhakti devotion Yogi, a true lover of God, by His unswerving devotion and His whole-hearted love for the Heavenly Father.

His unceasing prayers, incessant supplications, constant meditation, and unflinching self-resignation to the will of the Almighty made Him shine like a glorious morning star in the horizon of love and devotion of a true Bhakti Yogi.

Christ showed wonderful self-control and mastery over His mind throughout the trials and the sufferings. His sorrow, agony and self-surrender at the time of His death as well as before His crucifixion, are conclusive proofs that He was a human being with those divine qualities that adorn the soul of a true Bhakti Yogi.

It is true that His soul laboured for a while under the heavy burden of His trials and sufferings; it is also true that He felt that His pain was becoming well-nigh unbearable, when He cried aloud three times, praying to the Lord: The complete self-surrender and absolute self-resignation are the principal virtues of Bhakti Yoga, and as Christ possessed these to perfection up to the last moment of His life, He was a true Bhakti Yogi.

But in the case of the dry cocoanut the kernel becomes separate from the shell, and so when the shell is pierced, the kernel is not touched. Jesus was like the dry nut, i.

Therefore, He could pray for the forgiveness of His persecutors even when His body was suffering; and all true yogis are able to do the same. There have been many instances of Yogis whose bodies have been cut into pieces, but their souls never for a moment lost that peace and equanimity which enabled Jesus to forgive and bless His persecutors.

By this Christ proved that like other Yogis, His soul was completely emancipated from the bondage of the body and of the feelings. Therefore, Christ was a Yogi. Through the path of devotion and love, Jesus attained to the realization of oneness of the individual soul with the Father or the universal Spirit, which is the ideal of a Jnana Yogi as well as the ultimate goal of all religions.

A Jnana Yogi says: By good works, devotion, love, concentration, contemplation, long fasting and prayer, Jesus the Christ realized that His soul was one with God; therefore, He may be said to have attained the ideal of Jnana Yoga.

Like Krishna, Buddha and all other great Yogis of India, Jesus healed the sick, opened the eyes of the blind, made the lame walk, and read the secret thoughts of His disciples. He knew exactly what Judas and Peter were going to do, but there was nothing supernatural in any of His actions. There was nothing that cannot be done over and over again by a true Yogi, and there was nothing in His life that cannot be explained rationally by the science of Yoga and the philosophy of Vedanta.

Without the help of this science and this philosophy, Jesus the Christ cannot be fully understood and appreciated. By studying His character, on the other hand, in the light of the Vedanta philosophy, we shall be able not only to understand Him better, but to have a larger appreciation of His true glory.

Christian Science and Vedanta By Swami Abhedananda Most startling are the similarities that exist between the fundamental principles of modern Christian Science and those of the ancient system of philosophy known in India as Vedanta. The followers of Christian Science, unacquainted with the Vedanta and the religious teachings of India, may in all sincerity claim originality for their founder, Mrs. They may show their gratitude to her for numerous benefits received.

They may shut their eyes to all other systems of philosophy and religion, ancient or modern. Eddy, herself, was fully aware that the truths which she claimed to have discovered were discovered and taught in India by the Hindu sages and philosophers centuries before Jesus the Christ appeared on earth. Avatar Incarnation of God in Christianity and Hinduism By Swami Abhedananda Two great religions of the world advocate the belief that God, the supreme Ruler of the universe, incarnates in human form to help mankind- the one is Christianity, the other is the religion of Vedanta Hinduism , which prevails in India.

The Spirit and Meaning of Christmas Christ and His Teachings By Swami Abhedananda In whatsoever heart the Christ ideal is accepted, there is sown the seed of charity, self-denial, renunciation, control of passions, universal love and faith in God.

These are the cardinal virtues of the religion of Jesus the Christ. Jesus the Christ used to commune with the Lord by entering into the state of super-consciousness, by rising above this material plane, by forgetting the earthly existence. When we shall be able to do the same, then the birth of Spiritual Christ has taken place in our souls, then the spiritual Christmas will spread its glory within us and all around us.

That is the time for rejoicing. The external Christmas is only a form, but let us understand the spirit of Christmas and let us understand the meaning Did Christ Teach a New Religion? By Swami Abhedananda Earnest Renan says: Boudasp Bodhisattva, another name of Buddha was reputed as a wise Chaldean and the founder of Sabaism, which means, as its etymology indicates, Baptism".

Thus we can understand that there was an indirect influence of the Buddhist monks upon the mind of Jesus through the Essenes, and especially through John the Baptist. Jesus versus Churchianity By Swami Abhedananda. I am a college student working on a project. My project is to ask different faith perspectives one question.

The question is "Who is Jesus? The article by Swami Abhedananda provides the answer from the Hindu perspective. The religion of Christ or true Christianity had no dogma, no creed, no system, and no theology. It was a religion of the heart, a religion without any ceremonial, without ritual, without priest-craft. It was not based upon any book, but upon the feelings of the heart, upon direct communion of the individual soul with the heavenly Father. On the contrary, the religion of the church is based upon a book, believes in dogmas, professes a creed, has an organized system for preaching it, is backed up by theologies, performs rituals, practises ceremonials, and obeys the commands of a host of priests.

The religion of Christ was a religion of love, renunciation and self-control; it was a religion of God-consciousness. As these are the highest ideals among the Hindus, they accept Christ and His true religion in so far as it is one with their ideals; but when they see that Churchianity does not preach renunciation, and that its advocates do not practise love for all, nor show self-control, when they see that Christian governments encourage vice by opium trade, liquor trade, and introduce intoxicating things among innocent and temperate people for the sake of gain, they reject a religion which allows such things.

They believe in Jesus the Christ as the Son of God, and know that he did not teach such things. The duty of true religion is to broaden the human mind, to open the spiritual eyes, to lead humanity to the realization of oneness with the supreme Father in Heaven, and to repress all quarrels over dogmas and creeds.

Then, and then alone, are we able to say with Jesus, "I and my Father are one". The Hindus leave aside the disputed personality that dwells in each individual soul and believes that each soul is a latent Christ.

They believe that the voice of God tells this truth within each soul, but we do not listen to it, through our ignorance and selfishness. Let us listen to that voice, for it is one and the same, and let us follow it. Let us realize the spirit of true Christianity that was exhibited in the life of Jesus of Nazareth. Let us live as he lived, and be living Christs on earth. The Hindu is not satisfied merely to accept Christ in theory, but he strives hard to live the life, which Jesus lived, to lead a life of renunciation, of self-control and of love to all.

Synopsis of the Bhagavad Gita All 18 chapters. The Yoga of Meditation Self-control. Karma Yoga Yoga of selfless, disinterested Action described. Marks of one who has attained Yoga.

Marks of the God-realized soul. Dhyana Yoga Yoga of meditation described. Compassion springs from sattva. Though work for the good of others belongs to rajas, yet this rajas has sattva for its basis and is not harmful. Suka and other sages cherished compassion in their minds to give people religious instruction, to teach them about God.

You are distributing food and learning. That is good too. If these activities are done in a selfless spirit they lead to God. But most people work for fame or to acquire merit. Their activities are not selfless. One man may read the Bhagavata by the light of a lamp, and another may commit a forgery by that very light; but the lamp is unaffected.

The sun sheds its light on the wicked as well as on the virtuous. Brahman is unaffected by them. There is poison in a snake; but though others may die if bitten by it, the snake itself is not affected by the poison. The legends as well as Archeological studies reveal that the first signs of human inhabitants in Sri Lanka date back to a primitive age, about 1,, years ago and the bridge's age is also almost equivalent.

The matter has not been simplified by the realisation that vitamin B deficiency is even more prevalent among meat-eaters than among vegans. Vegans do not use any animal products, not even milk or milk products]. The Building Diet 2. The Curative Diet - The diet of elimination. Kalipada was one of those wayward souls who were saved by the Master. Like Girish, he was an out-and-out bohemian, a debauchee, and a drunkard.

One of these visitors, Gadashankar, was a follower of Keshab Chandra Sen. The Master Sri Ramakrishna talked with him on the eastern veranda while I was there.

If the blossoms of gourds and pumpkins are plucked off, their fruits rot, but when the fruits are ripe the flowers fall off naturally. Do you believe in a God with form or in a formless God? First meditate on the aspect with form. This will enable you to see the formless later.

Do you know how to pray? Why does one take so much care of his body? Narendra first visited Dakshineshwar sometime in the early part of However, he asked the Master: I see Him as I see you here, only more clearly. God can be seen. One can talk to Him. But who cares for God? People shed torrents of tears for their wives, children, wealth, and property, but who weeps for the vision of God?

If one cries sincerely for God, one can surely see Him. Bewildered, he bowed down to the Master and returned to Calcutta. A month later Narendra returned to Dakshineshwar and found the Master alone in his room. Ramakrishna was glad to see Narendra and asked him to sit on the corner of his bed. He felt sure that he was facing death. He cried out loudly: It will happen in its own good time.

Culture and Civilization Swami Smaranananda Maharaj Belur Math 'Civilization' means the betterment of ways of living, making Nature bend to fulfil the needs of humankind.

It includes also organizing societies into politically well-defined groups working collectively for improved conditions of life in matters of food, dress, communication, and so on. Thus a group considers itself as civilized, while others were looked down upon as barbarians. This has led to wars and holocausts, resulting in mass destruction of human beings.

Therefore civilization by itself cannot be the goal of life. On the other hand 'culture' refers to the inner man, a refinement of head and heart. One who may be poor and wearing cheap apparel may be considered 'uncivilized', but still he or she may be the most cultured person. For 'culture' concerns itself with the inner refinement of a person. This includes arts and sciences, music and dance and various higher pursuits of human life which are also classified as cultural activities. One possessing ostentatious wealth may be considered as 'civilized' but he may not be cultured.

Therefore when we deal with cultural yardsticks, we have to make clear our definition of 'culture'. We would prefer to call it the 'higher levels of inner refinement' of a human being. Man is not merely a physical being. He lives and acts in three levels: While better ways of living socially and politically and better utilisation of nature around us may be termed civilization, they are not enough to be a cultured individual.

Only when the deeper levels of human intellect and consciousness are brought into expression can we call a person 'cultured'. Religion is the struggle of man in the inner world.

Science makes man struggle for Truth in the outside universe, and religion makes him struggle for Truth in the inner universe. Both struggles are great, no doubt, but one ends in success and the other ends in failure.

That is the difference. Religion begins where science ends. The whole scientific method is based on observation and experiment; but the moment man realises that there is something beyond observation and experiment he will give them up and leave material science behind. Science will always have to deal with finite bodies, and God is infinite. He that, with the desire of obtaining a boon, recites this hymn concentrating his mind with ascetic abstraction, obtains it from the sun, however difficult of acquisition it may be that he asks for.

And the person, male or female, that recites or hears this hymn day after day, if he or she desires for a son, obtains one, and if riches, obtains them, and if learning, acquires that too. And the person male or female, that recites this hymn every day in the two twilights, if overtaken by danger, is delivered from it, and if bound, is freed from the bonds. Brahma himself had communicated this hymn to the illustrious Sakra, and from Sakra was it obtained by Narada and from Narada, by Dhaumya.

And Yudhishthira, obtaining from Dhaumya, attained all his wishes. And it is by virtue of this hymn that one may always obtain victory in war, and acquire immense wealth also. And it leads the reciter from all sins, to the solar region.

And while the sun so stayed over the earth, the lord of the vegetable world the moon , converting the effects of the solar heat vapours into clouds and pouring them down in the shape of water, caused plants to spring up. Thus it is the sun himself, who, drenched by the lunar influence, is transformed, upon the sprouting of seeds, into holy vegetable furnished with the six tastes. And it is these that constitute the food of all creatures upon the earth.

Thus the food that supports the lives of creatures is instinct with solar energy, and the sun is, therefore, the father of all creatures. He was handsome and well built. As a commercial agent of the Dost company, a large British firm in Calcutta, he had a well paying job. He was married but had no children.

Most of his friends were of the bohemian type, and like them, he often got drunk and was promiscuous. Although Surendra was quite affluent, his licentious conduct was ruining his mental peace. He even thought of killing himself with poison. Surendra was born probably in and met Sri Ramakrishna when he was thirty. Introducing the Decimal number system into Europe. That fool who believing that all this exists in consequence of its own nature without, in fact, an existent refuge or foundation, fills by such instruction the aspirations of disciples, dispelling by his dialectical ingenuity the reasons the latter might urge to the contrary, succeeds not in attaining to any truth.

They again who firmly believe that all Cause is due to the nature of things, fail to acquire any truth by even listening to wiser men or the Rishis who are capable of instructing them. Those men of little intelligence who stop in their speculations , having adopted either of these doctrines, indeed, those men who regard nature as the cause, never succeed in obtaining any benefit for themselves.

Dharanaa What is Dharanaa? Kosas-Sheaths By Sri Parthasarathy The structure of man can be divided into five material layers enveloping Atman indwelling soul. Atman is the core of your personality.

The five layers of matter are like five concentric circles around the symbol. The five sheaths pancha-kosas are: In his own words: We considered that everything happens, changes, or dissolves by the force of nature.

We were rank materialists, and we held the view that eating, sleeping, and creature comforts were the summum bommum of life. Moreover, I have terrible doubts about his existence. Can you tell me the way to realize God? He did not know what to say. Single-minded Devotion By Swami Chetanananda It is hard to believe how the infinite God actually assumes a finite human form and plays with human beings. But this play was actually enacted in the life of a woman devotee of Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa.

The declarations of the Vedas are twofold. They once lay down the command: I shall expound to thee the two paths, viz. Brahmachari From The Mahabharata The conduct of a Brahmachari celibate student He should never eat before his preceptor has eaten; never drink before his preceptor has drunk; never sit down before his preceptor has sat down; and never go to bed before his preceptor has gone to bed.

Grahasthya Householder From The Mahabharata As regards the domestic mode of life, four kinds of conduct have been laid down by the learned. Vanaprastha From The Mahabharata Four kinds of courses of conduct have been laid down for observance in the Vanaprastha mode of life.

The word that signifies God is AUM. When properly pronounced, Aum represents the whole gamut of sound production as no other word can. It is therefore the matrix of all sounds, and thus the fittest symbol of the Godhead; it is the word, which, according to St.

John, was in the beginning, was with God, and was God. The three aspects of creation, preservation, and destruction are expressed by the three letters of Aum. As there exists a close relationship between the body and the mind, one finds it helpful and easy to control the mental states by certain physical exercises laid down in Hatha Yoga.

For the practice of Hatha Yoga, a qualified teacher is absolutely necessary. The main purpose of Hatha Yoga is to increase the strength, vitality, and digestive power, as well as to remove various physical ailments.

Karma yoga is the secret of action. It gives the worker evenness of mind in gain and loss, success and failure. The enlightened person sees God manifested both as the One and as the many. He communes with the One in the silence of meditation, and with the many through work. When love of God fills the heart all other forms of love pale into insignificance Spiritual love, or bhakti, is directed only to God When a man obtains love of God, he loves all, hates none, and becomes satisfied forever The discipline of bhakti is the easiest and most natural of all spiritual disciplines, because it does not demand the suppression of normal impulses; it only tells the devotee to turn them to God.

Explain that which is the highest truth. From what source have sprung all creatures mobile and immobile? By what do creatures live? What is the limit of their life? What is penance, O learned Brahmana?

What are called attributes by the good? What paths are to be called auspicious? Self-interest Friend and foe From The Mahabharata Kshatriya duties- kingcraft- Statecraft There is no condition that deserves permanently the name either of friendship or hostility.

Both friends and foes arise from considerations of interest and gain. Friendship becomes changed into enmity in the course of time. A foe also becomes a friend.

Self-interest is very powerful. The highest truth of all treatises on policy is mistrust. For this reason, mistrust of all persons is productive of the greatest good. However weak people may be, if they mistrust their foes, the latter, even if strong, never succeed in getting them under power. The members are mostly aquatic, either free- living or parasitic on water molds, algae and small animals. Some are terrestrial and few are parasitic on higher plants.

The class Oomycetes is characterised by oogamous type of sexual reproduction. Members of this class are generally aquatic, but some are terrestrial, grows saprophyticaily on soil or parasitically on shoots of higher plants. Asexual reproduction takes place by biflagellate zoospore without cell wall. The flagella are unequal in length, the shorter one tinsel Flimmer or Pantonematic type and longer one whiplash Peitschen or Acronematic type.

Some members produce conidia as asexual spore. Sexual reproduction is of oogamous type. The non-motile gametes are produced in male antheridium and female oogonium gametangium.

The vegetative thallus is diploid and meiosis takes place in gametangium rather than in zygote. Different species of Pythium cause foot rot, fruit rot, rhizome rot and damping off detail in Table 4. Different species of Albugo cause white rust disease of different hosts like crucifers cabbage, Brassica, radish, rurnip etc. Candida is very common causing white rust of crucifers. The mycelium contains cell organelles like other fungi, except typical golgi bodies and centriole.

Saprophytic or, if parasitic or predaceous, having mycelium immersed in host tissue Zygomycetes. The subdivisions Mastigomycotina and Zygomycotina of G. Ainsworth were earlier included under the class Phycomycetes by Gwynne-Vanghan and Barnes Septa may form in the older plants and also at the base of sex organs.

The zoospores are either uni- or biflagellate. The product of sexual fusion may be zygote Synchytrium, Allomyces , zygospore Rhizopus, Mucor or oospore Pythium, Phytophthora , usually secretes a thick wall around itself and undergoes rest.

Majority of the members are terrestrial, although many members live in water. They may be saprophyte or parasite, cause diseases. The most important and interesting members are the yeasts used in bakery and alcohol industry.

Claviceps purpurea, the causal agent of ergot disease of rye, develops sclerotia that contain a lot of alkaloids including L. Later, it was also isolated from P. Mostly, the cell wall is composed of chitin and glucans, but in unicellular form, it is composed of glucans and mannans. Asexual reproduction takes place by non- motile spores, such as conida, oidia and chlamydospores.

Sexual reproduction takes place by gametangial copulation Saccharomyces , gametangial contact Penicillium , somatogamy Morchella or spermatization Polystigma. The product of sexual reproduction is the ascospores grown inside a small specialised sac-like structure, called ascus.

The fruiting bodies inside which asci are developed are the ascocarps. The ascocarps may be cleistothecium Penicillium , apothecium Ascobolus , perithecium Daldenia or ascostroma Elsinoe veneta. Asci evanescent, scattered within the astomous ascocarp which is typically a cleistothecium; ascospores aseptate.

Ascocarp an apothecium or a modified apothecium, frequently macroscopic, epigean or hypogean; asci inoperculate or operculate. Asci may be cylindrical, globose or club-shaped Fig. The prototunicate asci Endomyces, Saccharomyces etc. Both unitunicate and bitunicate asci have two layered wall.

In unitunicate asci Peziza, Ascobolus etc. Asci may develop either directly or indirectly. In unicellular members like Saccharomyces and related genera, the two compatible cells come close to each other Fig. The cells undergo plasmogamy by dissolution of their common wall and the two haploid nuclei come close to each other and undergo fusion karyogamy results in the formation of a diploid nucleus, the zygote Fig.

The zygote containing cell enlarges and forms an ascus mother cell. The diploid nucleus undergoes first meiotic division followed by single mitotic division, results in the formation of eight nuclei Fig. The nuclei along with some cytoplasm form ascospores. In some cases, mitotic division does not take place after meiosis and forms four ascospores Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomycodes ludwigii in an ascus.

In filamentous members like Dipodascus uninucleates Fig. In filamentous members like Penicillium, Peziza, Pyronema Fig. The transfer of male nuclei from antheridium to ascogonium takes place by plasmogamy and both the nuclei of opposite mating arrange themselves in pairs, called dikaryon. Karyogamy maintains a long time interval with plasmogamy.

From the wall of the ascogonium a number of ascogenous hyphae develop showing a dikaryon condition Fig. The tip of the ascogenous hyphae bends down to form a crozier or hook Fig. Thus four nuclei are formed by mitosis inside the crozier. The wall of ascus mother cell extends more in length than the breadth, thus forms an elongated ascus.

Simultaneously, both the nuclei of ascus mother cell fuse and form diploid nucleus Fig. The cytoplasm accumulates around each nucleus to form ascospore Fig. Division may take place both in nucleus and cytoplasm of an ascus results in the formation of 2-celled ascospore. The apical cell of ascogenous filament bends and may fuse with the basal cell and the region extends again and forms new binucleate penultimate cell as before Fig.

This process may repeat several times and a cluster of asci may develop. Ascospores are produced in ascus Fig. The ascospores may be colourless or are variously coloured.

They may be of various shapes, ranges from globose to narrow thread-like. Their wall may be smooth or variously ornamented. The asci become naked Fig. In cleistothecium the asci may be arranged scatteredly Penicillium or are arranged in tuft at the base Erysiphe, Fig.

Asci are arranged in a layer on the top of the exposed hymenial surface mixed with paraphysis in Apothecium Fig. This type of ascocarp is also known as Pseudothecium Pleospora, Leptosphaeria etc. The members included in the subdivision Basidiomycotina are characterised by the formation of basidiospores exogenously on the basidium PI.

The subdivision included about genera with more than 16, species. The members include rusts, smuts, mushrooms, puff balls, toad stools, bracket fungi etc. Mushrooms [Volvariella volvacea, Agaricus brunnescens syn. Some members like Amanita phalloides, A. The bracket fungi like Polyporus betulinus, P. Some others like P.

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