Society Is Fixed, Biology Is Mutable


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Theorists attempt to account for scientific data and ideally predict data yet to be adduced, which tests the validity of their hypotheses and theories. September 15, at 9: It seems to me that some high school schedules are on the early side even for adults. On Earth, that hydrogen liberated by ultraviolet light reacts with atmospheric oxygen and turns back into water before it can escape into space. Every progressive initiative has someone making money off of it because of human nature. For example, it will have consequences for our theories to explain gender differences, and for our theories to explain family relations.

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As organic matter dies, carbon is released back into the atmosphere. This process also facilitates nutrient cycling by converting nutrients stored in dead biomass back to a form that can be used again by plants and other microbes.

Ecosystems are controlled by both external and internal factors. External factors such as climate , the parent material that forms the soil, topography and time each affect ecosystems. However, these external factors are not themselves influenced by the ecosystem. They not only control ecosystem processes but are also controlled by them. Another way of saying this is that internal factors are subject to feedback loops.

Humans operate within ecosystems and can influence both internal and external factors. Ecosystems provide benefits, called " ecosystem services ", which people depend on for their livelihood. Ecosystem management is more efficient than trying to manage individual species.

There is no single definition of what constitutes an ecosystem. Ecosystems can be studied in a variety of ways. Those include theoretical studies or more practical studies that monitor specific ecosystems over long periods of time or look at differences between ecosystems to better understand how they work. Some studies involve experimenting with direct manipulation of the ecosystem.

Carpenter has argued that microcosm experiments can be "irrelevant and diversionary" if they are not carried out in conjunction with field studies done at the ecosystem scale. Microcosm experiments often fail to accurately predict ecosystem-level dynamics. It was the first successful attempt to study an entire watershed as an ecosystem. The study used stream chemistry as a means of monitoring ecosystem properties, and developed a detailed biogeochemical model of the ecosystem.

Researchers documented the depletion of soil cations especially calcium over the next several decades. T errestrial ecosystem s found on land and aquatic ecosystems found in water are concepts related to ecosystems. Aquatic ecosystems are split into marine ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems. Ecosystems are controlled both by external and internal factors. External factors, also called state factors, control the overall structure of an ecosystem and the way things work within it, but are not themselves influenced by the ecosystem.

The most important of these is climate. Rainfall patterns and seasonal temperatures influence photosynthesis and thereby determine the amount of water and energy available to the ecosystem. Parent material determines the nature of the soil in an ecosystem, and influences the supply of mineral nutrients.

Topography also controls ecosystem processes by affecting things like microclimate , soil development and the movement of water through a system. For example, ecosystems can be quite different if situated in a small depression on the landscape, versus one present on an adjacent steep hillside. Other external factors that play an important role in ecosystem functioning include time and potential biota.

Similarly, the set of organisms that can potentially be present in an area can also significantly affect ecosystems. Ecosystems in similar environments that are located in different parts of the world can end up doing things very differently simply because they have different pools of species present.

Unlike external factors, internal factors in ecosystems not only control ecosystem processes but are also controlled by them. Consequently, they are often subject to feedback loops.

Primary production is the production of organic matter from inorganic carbon sources. This mainly occurs through photosynthesis. The energy incorporated through this process supports life on earth, while the carbon makes up much of the organic matter in living and dead biomass, soil carbon and fossil fuels. It also drives the carbon cycle , which influences global climate via the greenhouse effect.

Through the process of photosynthesis, plants capture energy from light and use it to combine carbon dioxide and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen. The photosynthesis carried out by all the plants in an ecosystem is called the gross primary production GPP. Energy and carbon enter ecosystems through photosynthesis , are incorporated into living tissue, transferred to other organisms that feed on the living and dead plant matter, and eventually released through respiration.

The carbon and energy incorporated into plant tissues net primary production is either consumed by animals while the plant is alive, or it remains uneaten when the plant tissue dies and becomes detritus. The remainder is either consumed by animals while still alive and enters the plant-based trophic system, or it is consumed after it has died, and enters the detritus-based trophic system. In aquatic systems , the proportion of plant biomass that gets consumed by herbivores is much higher.

The organisms that consume their tissues are called primary consumers or secondary producers — herbivores. Organisms which feed on microbes bacteria and fungi are termed microbivores. Animals that feed on primary consumers— carnivores —are secondary consumers. Each of these constitutes a trophic level. The sequence of consumption—from plant to herbivore, to carnivore—forms a food chain.

Real systems are much more complex than this—organisms will generally feed on more than one form of food, and may feed at more than one trophic level. Carnivores may capture some prey which are part of a plant-based trophic system and others that are part of a detritus-based trophic system a bird that feeds both on herbivorous grasshoppers and earthworms, which consume detritus.

Real systems, with all these complexities, form food webs rather than food chains. Ecosystem ecology studies "the flow of energy and materials through organisms and the physical environment". It seeks to understand the processes which govern the stocks of material and energy in ecosystems, and the flow of matter and energy through them.

The study of ecosystems can cover 10 orders of magnitude , from the surface layers of rocks to the surface of the planet. The carbon and nutrients in dead organic matter are broken down by a group of processes known as decomposition.

This releases nutrients that can then be re-used for plant and microbial production and returns carbon dioxide to the atmosphere or water where it can be used for photosynthesis. In the absence of decomposition, the dead organic matter would accumulate in an ecosystem, and nutrients and atmospheric carbon dioxide would be depleted.

Decomposition processes can be separated into three categories— leaching , fragmentation and chemical alteration of dead material. As water moves through dead organic matter, it dissolves and carries with it the water-soluble components. These are then taken up by organisms in the soil, react with mineral soil, or are transported beyond the confines of the ecosystem and are considered lost to it.

Leaching is more important in wet environments and much less important in dry ones. Fragmentation processes break organic material into smaller pieces, exposing new surfaces for colonization by microbes.

Freshly shed leaf litter may be inaccessible due to an outer layer of cuticle or bark , and cell contents are protected by a cell wall. Newly dead animals may be covered by an exoskeleton.

Fragmentation processes, which break through these protective layers, accelerate the rate of microbial decomposition. Freeze-thaw cycles and cycles of wetting and drying also fragment dead material.

The chemical alteration of the dead organic matter is primarily achieved through bacterial and fungal action. Fungal hyphae produce enzymes which can break through the tough outer structures surrounding dead plant material. They also produce enzymes which break down lignin , which allows them access to both cell contents and to the nitrogen in the lignin. Drug delivery systems using nanotechnology , such as biocompatible polymers, hold promise for the field of pharmaceutical science, as they offer tools and nanostructured materials that deliver therapeutic drugs for treating diseases successfully.

Like drug delivery systems, several delivery systems have been designed for Nutraceutical delivery, including smart polymers that are stimuli responsive. This chapter will mostly focus on the characteristics of Nutraceuticals and discuss strategic designs of Nutraceutical delivery systems.

Unique microencapsulation technology was developed by AnaBio and distributed in Europe by Prinova which create new potential for the inclusion of creatine in the liquid delivery formats such as gels, gummies, and sports drinks. Creatine monohydrate has long-established benefits for sports performance because it has been shown to increase power, strength and muscular endurance.

There is also growing evidence that it can offset the loss of lean tissue mass in elderly people and trauma patients. Nutritious Disorder is the disorder caused by a deficient admission of sustenance or of specific supplements, by a failure of the body to assimilate and utilize supplements, or by overconsumption of specific nourishments.

As such Nutritional Disorder is healthful lopsidedness which is because of either finished sustenance or under nourishment. It might cause by the nearness of a poison in the eating regimen. Inadequacy of particular supplements is normally connected with a confusion of the stomach related framework, for example, coeliac malady, Crohn's illness, or poisonous paleness see iron deficiency, megaloblastic.

Naturally happening poisons can meddle with the assimilation, retention, or potentially use of supplements , or can cause particular issue because of their harmful impacts. Pharmacognosy is the study of medicines or crude drugs made from natural sources like plants, microbes, and animals. It includes analysis of their biological, chemical, organic chemistry, and physical properties.

Pharmacognosy offers associate intensive comprehension of traditional things from completely different sources. These mixes have potential therapeutic applications for the rejection and treatment of varied conditions and sicknesses, and should likewise fill in as common pesticides and herbicides. As of late, biological benefits and philosophies have accumulated new enthusiasm about a possible thanks to handle characteristic item analysis and medicine improvement, a territory presently named ''ecopharmacognosy.

Phytochemistry is within the study of phytochemicals. These ar chemicals derived from plants. In alternative words the terms ar usually accustomed describe the massive variety of primary and secondary metabolic compounds found in plants. They additionally exhibit the quantity of protecting functions for individuals. Legal status of Nutraceuticals. Nutrition plays a very vital role within the development of human resource. Human resource is one of the strengths of any stronger nation.

This is done on both the microscopic and molecular levels, for unicellular organisms such as bacteria , as well as the specialized cells of multicellular organisms such as humans. Understanding the structure and function of cells is fundamental to all of the biological sciences. The similarities and differences between cell types are particularly relevant to molecular biology.

Anatomy is a treatment of the macroscopic forms of such structures organs and organ systems. Genetics is the science of genes , heredity , and the variation of organisms. Genetics provides research tools used in the investigation of the function of a particular gene, or the analysis of genetic interactions. Within organisms, genetic information is physically represented as chromosomes , within which it is represented by a particular sequence of amino acids in particular DNA molecules.

Developmental biology studies the process by which organisms grow and develop. Developmental biology, originated from embryology , studies the genetic control of cell growth , cellular differentiation , and "cellular morphogenesis ," which is the process that progressively gives rise to tissues , organs , and anatomy. Model organisms for developmental biology include the round worm Caenorhabditis elegans , [50] the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster , [51] the zebrafish Danio rerio , [52] the mouse Mus musculus , [53] and the weed Arabidopsis thaliana.

Physiology is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical processes of living organisms function as a whole. The theme of "structure to function" is central to biology.

Physiological studies have traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology , but some principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particular organism is being studied. For example, what is learned about the physiology of yeast cells can also apply to human cells. The field of animal physiology extends the tools and methods of human physiology to non-human species.

Plant physiology borrows techniques from both research fields. Physiology is the study the interaction of how, for example, the nervous , immune , endocrine , respiratory , and circulatory systems, function and interact. The study of these systems is shared with such medically oriented disciplines as neurology and immunology.

Evolutionary research is concerned with the origin and descent of species , and their change over time. It employs scientists from many taxonomically oriented disciplines, for example, those with special training in particular organisms such as mammalogy , ornithology , botany , or herpetology , but are of use in answering more general questions about evolution.

Evolutionary biology is partly based on paleontology , which uses the fossil record to answer questions about the mode and tempo of evolution, [57] and partly on the developments in areas such as population genetics. Multiple speciation events create a tree structured system of relationships between species. The role of systematics is to study these relationships and thus the differences and similarities between species and groups of species.

Traditionally, living things have been divided into five kingdoms: Monera ; Protista ; Fungi ; Plantae ; Animalia. Modern alternative classification systems generally begin with the three-domain system: Archaea originally Archaebacteria ; Bacteria originally Eubacteria and Eukaryota including protists , fungi , plants , and animals [63] These domains reflect whether the cells have nuclei or not, as well as differences in the chemical composition of key biomolecules such as ribosomes.

Further, each kingdom is broken down recursively until each species is separately classified. Outside of these categories, there are obligate intracellular parasites that are "on the edge of life" [64] in terms of metabolic activity, meaning that many scientists do not actually classify such structures as alive, due to their lack of at least one or more of the fundamental functions or characteristics that define life.

They are classified as viruses , viroids , prions , or satellites. The scientific name of an organism is generated from its genus and species. For example, humans are listed as Homo sapiens. Homo is the genus, and sapiens the species. When writing the scientific name of an organism, it is proper to capitalize the first letter in the genus and put all of the species in lowercase. The dominant classification system is called the Linnaean taxonomy.

It includes ranks and binomial nomenclature. A merging draft, BioCode, was published in in an attempt to standardize nomenclature in these three areas, but has yet to be formally adopted. A revised BioCode that, instead of replacing the existing codes, would provide a unified context for them, was proposed in Animalia — Bos primigenius taurus. Fungi — Morchella esculenta.

Virus — Gamma phage. Ecology is the study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms , the interaction between them and their environment. A microscopic bacterium responding to a local sugar gradient is responding to its environment as much as a lion searching for food in the African savanna.

For any species, behaviors can be co-operative , competitive , parasitic , or symbiotic. Matters become more complex when two or more species interact in an ecosystem. Ecological systems are studied at several different levels, from the scale of the ecology of individual organisms, to those of populations , to the ecosystems and finally the biosphere. The term population biology is often used interchangeably with population ecology , although population biology is more frequently used in the case of diseases , viruses , and microbes , while the term population ecology is more commonly applied to the study of plants and animals.

Ecology draws on many subdisciplines. Ethology is the study of animal behavior particularly that of social animals such as primates and canids , and is sometimes considered a branch of zoology. Ethologists have been particularly concerned with the evolution of behavior and the understanding of behavior in terms of the theory of natural selection. In one sense, the first modern ethologist was Charles Darwin , whose book, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals , influenced many ethologists to come.

Biogeography studies the spatial distribution of organisms on the Earth , focusing on such topics as plate tectonics , climate change , dispersal and migration , and cladistics. Despite the profound advances made over recent decades in our understanding of life's fundamental processes, some basic problems have remained unresolved.

One of the major unresolved problems in biology is the primary adaptive function of sex, and particularly its key processes in eukaryotes of meiosis and homologous recombination. One view is that sex evolved primarily as an adaptation that promoted increased genetic diversity see references e. An alternative view is that sex is an adaptation for promoting accurate DNA repair in germ-line DNA, and that increased genetic diversity is primarily a byproduct that may be useful in the long run.

Another basic unresolved problem in biology is the biologic basis of aging. At present, there is no consensus view on the underlying cause of aging. Various competing theories are outlined in Ageing Theories. These are the main branches of biology: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Biology disambiguation. Biology deals with the study of life and organisms.

Goliath beetle and tree fern. Molecular biology , Cell biology , Genetics , and Developmental biology. Ecology , Ethology , Behavior , and Biogeography. List of unsolved problems in biology. Biology in fiction Glossary of biology List of biological websites List of biologists List of biology journals List of biology topics List of omics topics in biology National Association of Biology Teachers Outline of biology Periodic table of life sciences in Tinbergen's four questions Reproduction Terminology of biology.

Texas State University at San Marcos. Archived from the original on Advances in Physiology Education. Molecular Biology, Principles of Genome Function. Retrieved 14 February The Romantic Conception of Life: Science and Philosophy in the Age of Goethe.

University of Chicago Press. The Epic History of Biology.

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